1)  The Polar Engineering Development Center (PEDC)
 
The PEDC, housed at NJIT and run as a joint venture between NJIT, Siena College, and the University of New Hampshire, is a highly skilled group of collegiate professors, research scientists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and technicians that have decades of experience in instrument and hardware design for deployment at high latitude/polar environments.  The group was originally formed in the 1980’s as part of the NSF-supported Automatic Geophysical Observatory program which operates to this day across the Antarctic ice shelf.  Today, the PEDC serves the broader scientific communities conducting research in polar environments by providing support in the areas of sustainable “green” power generation in the 100-W range, power conditioning and control, robust engineering for polar climates, data acquisition units and transmission services, and general polar field support.  Below is a sampling of projects  that active at the PEDC.
 
Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs)
The AGOs are a collection of remote, unmanned platforms for geophysical monitoring on the Antarctic plateau.  Figure 1 shows an AGO enclosure and Figure 2 shows the active AGO locations. Each AGO site has a fiberglass shelter approximately 5-m x 2.5-m x 2.5-m in size to house scientific instruments and basic living accommodations (used for biennium site visits). These sites currently use a totally “green” renewable energy scheme (i.e., solar and wind) to power a suite of scientific and communications equipment at a level of approximately 100-W year-round.  After several years of experimentation and modification, the unmanned facility has become highly reliable.
 
 
 
 
Figure 1.  AGO enclosure, showing both solar and wind power generation systems.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Figure 2.  Locations of the five AGO sites.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Iridium SBD Data Acquisition and Transmission Systems (IDAT)
A completely new telemetry system (Figure 3) using Iridium SBD was designed, implemented and deployed at all of the AGO sites.  The Iridium SBD data service allows small, low-power modems (called “mobile units”) to send multiple data packets, each of up to 350 bytes long, to a stateside e-mail address or IP address.  This data link is highly reliable, error-free and available with world-wide coverage.  The present IDAT design accommodates 16 analog channels with 12-bit resolution.  Four digital channels are provided which are opto-isolated.  When taking a measurement, +/-15 V is available at the front panel.  Because the SBD data communications are two-way, the IDAT systems can control a latching relay or send a serial data packet to an instrument when commanded from stateside.  These systems are ideal for remote instrument monitoring and synoptic data transfer.
 
 
 
 
Figure 3.  IDAT systems ready for deployment.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
South Pole, Antarctica, Solar Radio Telescope (SPASRT)
The PEDC is currently involved with the development, construction, installation, and testing of a solar radio telescope at South Pole station for 24-hour continuous, long-term austral summer observations of the sun across the 0.5-18 GHz frequency band.  The radio telescope design is mature and based on similar radio telescopes currently in use (Figure 4).  The receiver will make use of recent technological advances in digital technologies to simultaneously cover the 0.5-18 GHz band.  The SPASRT system will utilize two sets of 9 parallel IF channels, each of 2000 MHz instantaneous bandwidth, to permit dual-polarization sampling of the entire 0.5-18 GHz range without frequency or polarization switching.  The RF signal from the dual polarization feed would be transmitted directly to a warm control room via optical fiber, and then downconverted and filtered into 9 bands that are simultaneously sampled on each polarization with multiple ADCs. The entire system is designed to withstand the difficult operating conditions of the South Pole and to operate autonomously during the austral summer season.
 
 
 
 
Figure 4.  Radome schematic for the SPASRT system.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2) The Second-generation Optimized Fabry-Perot Doppler Imager (SOFDI)
 
    Gerrard is responsible for the deployment and operation of the SOFDI, which is a novel triple-etalon Fabry-Perot designed for 24-hour observations of thermospheric and mesospheric winds and temperatures.  This is a one-of-a-kind instrument capable of taking daytime thermospheric wind measurements; a unique and difficult measurement important to equatorial thermospheric physics.  Concurrently, Gerrard is working with an all-sky imager from Cornell University [CASI] that will be used in conjunction with SOFDI to observe mesospheric gravity waves and thermospheric plasma irregularities.  Gerrard is also working on a number of related numerical modeling projects; notably the development of the community-accessible FOREGRATS model which tracks the generation and propagation of tropospherically-generated and secondary in-situ generated gravity waves.  
    The SOFDI measurements, the all-sky imager data from CASI, and the FOREGRATS modeling efforts are all being brought together to synergistically support the Air Force C/NOFS program that will study and forecast the occurrence of equatorial spread-F [ESF]; a high priority “hot topic” research issue in the fields of space weather and plasma physics.  To this end, Gerrard is currently the PI of an AFOSR-sponsored multi-university campaign involving Clemson University, Cornell University, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign that has implemented instruments across South America, with the flagship instrument being SOFDI at Huancayo, Peru, to study ESF.
 
 
 
 
3) NJIT-UACNJ-PSU Collaborative
 
Gerrard initiated and leads the NJIT-UACNJ-PSU collaborative, a multi-institutional endeavor involving NJIT, The Pennsylvania State University, Clemson University, and the United Astronomy Clubs of New Jersey [UACNJ] focused on the operation of the ITEK 1.2-m fully-steerable optical telescope to the UACNJ field site at Jenny Jump State Forrest in northwestern New Jersey.  This telescope is the largest optical telescope located east of the Mississippi and is open to the public for sponsored viewing.  Furthermore, this telescope forms the receiver of a lidar system and is the heart of the research facility.  Gerrard’s initial research focuses on the study of gravity wave generation by the Newark-New York urban heat island [UHI] convective pattern; a unique and novel research program addressing urbanization and its role in global climate change. The lidar instrument is accompanied by a Fabry-Perot Interferometer, a dual-frequency GPS receiver, a magnetometer, and solar radio telescope support instrumentation to support the UHI-gravity wave studies, as well as to provide spin-off space weather research projects.  Senior Personnel include: Observatory Director Mr. Gilbert Jeffer [NJIT-UACNJ], Distinguished Professor Dr. Dale Gary [NJIT], Dr. Robert Melville [NJIT], Professor Dr. Timothy Kane [Penn State], Professor Dr. John Meriwether [Clemson University], Professor Dr. Jonathan Makela [UIUC], and Dr. David Fritts [CoRA].
 
 
 
Selected Journal Publications
Melville, R., A. Stillinger, A. Gerrard, A. Weatherwax (2014), Sustainable energy at the 100-W level for scientific sites on the Antarctic Plateau: Lessons learned from the PENGUIn-AGO project, Review of Scientific Instruments, in press.
 
Gerrard, A., L. Lanzerotti, M. Gkioulidou, D. Mitchell, J. Manweiler, and J. Bortnik (2014), Quiet time observations of He ions in the inner magnetosphere as observed from the RBSPICE instrument aboard the Van Allen Probes mission, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL059175.
 
Earle, G. D., R. L. Davidson, R. A. Heelis, W. R. Coley, D. R. Weimer, J. J. Makela, D. J. Fisher, A. J. Gerrard, J. Meriwether (2013), Low latitude thermospheric responses to magnetic storms, DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50212.
 
Li, Z., S. Naqvi , A. J. Gerrard, J. L. Chau, and Y. Bhattacharya (2012), Initial MST radar observations of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric duct-like structures over Jicamarca, Peru,  Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11085–11093, doi:10.5194/acp-12-11085-2012.
 
Gerrard, A. J. and Meriwether, J. W.: Initial daytime and nighttime SOFDI observations of thermospheric winds from Fabry-Perot Doppler shift measurements of the 630-nm OI line-shape profile (2011), Ann. Geophys., 29, 1529-1536, doi:10.5194/angeo-29-1529-2011.
 
Urban, K. D., A. J. Gerrard, Y. Bhattacharya, A. J. Ridley, L. J. Lanzerotti, and A. T. Weatherwax (2011), Quiet time observations of the open-closed boundary prior to the CIR-induced storm of 9 August 2008, Space Weather, 9, S11001, doi:10.1029/2011SW000688.
 
Gerrard, A. J., Y. Bhattacharya, and J. P. Thayer (2011), Observations of in-situ generated gravity waves during a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE) event, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 22, pp.11913-11917, doi: 10.5194/acp-11-11913-2011.
 
Gerrard, A. J., Y. Bhattacharya, and J. P. Thayer (2011), Observations of in-situ generated gravity waves during a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE) event, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 14221-14232, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-14221-2011.
 
Li, Z., S. Naqvi, A. J. Gerrard, J. L. Chau, and Y. Bhattacharya (2011), Numerical modeling of lower stratospheric Doppler ducted gravity waves over Jicamarca, Peru, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 19011-19027, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-19011-2011.
 
Bhattacharya, Y., and A. J. Gerrard (2010), Wintertime mesopause region vertical winds from Resolute Bay, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00N07, doi:10.1029/2010JD014113.
 
Gerrard, A. J., D. Detrick, S. Mende, L. J. Lanzerotti, A. T. Weatherwax, and Y. Bhattacharya (2010),  Photometric observations of 630.0-nm OI and 427.8-nm N2+ emission from South Pole and McMurdo Stations during winter:  Analysis of temporal variations spanning minutes to hourly timescales, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 115, No. A8, A08231, 10.1029/2009JA014970.
 
Bhattacharya, Y. and A. J. Gerrard, Correlations of mesospheric winds with subtle motion of the Arctic polar vortex, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 431-436, 2010.
 
Bhattacharya, Y. and A. J. Gerrard, Correlations of mesospheric winds with subtle motion of the Arctic polar vortex, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 16549–16562, 2009.
 
Lessard, M. R., A. T. Weatherwax, M. Spasojevic, U. Inan, A. Gerrard, L. Lanzerotti, A. Ridley, M. J. Engebretson, N. Petit, R. Clauer, J. LaBelle, S. Mende, H. Frey, S. Pilipenko, T. J. Rosenberg, and D. Detrick, PENGUIn multi-instrument observations of high-latitude injections during the March 23, 2007 substorm, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A00C11, doi:10.1029/2008JA013507, 2009.
 
Brown, L. B., A. J. Gerrard, J. W. Meriwether, and J. J. Makela, All-sky imaging observations of mesospheric fronts in OI 557.7 nm and broadband OH airglow emissions: Analysis of frontal structure, atmospheric background conditions, and potential sourcing mechanisms, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004223, 2004.
 
Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, S. D. Eckermann, and J. P. Thayer, Gravity waves and mesospheric clouds in the summer middle atmosphere: A comparison of lidar measurements and ray modeling of gravity waves over Sondrestrom, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 109(D10), D1010310.1029/2002JD002783, 2004.
 
Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, J. P. Thayer, and S. D. Eckermann, Concerning the upper stratospheric gravity wave and mesospheric cloud relationship over Sondrestrom, Greenland, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr.Phys., 66, 229-240, 2004.
 
Thayer, J. P., M. Rapp, A. J. Gerrard, E. Gudmundsson, T. J. Kane, Gravity-wave influences on Arctic mesospheric clouds as determined by a Rayleigh lidar at Sondrestrom, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D8), 8449, doi:10.1029/2002JD002363, 2003.
 
Collins, S. C., J. M. C. Plane, M. C. Kelley, T. G. Wright,  P. Soldán, R. J. Rollason, T. J. Kane, A. J. Gerrard, B. W. Grime, J. S. Friedman, S. A. González, Q. Zhou,  and M. P. Sulzer, A study of the role of ion-molecule chemistry in the formation of sporadic sodium layers, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Physics, 64, 7, 845-860,  2002.
 
Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, J. P. Thayer, T. J. Duck, J. A. Whiteway, and J. Fiedler, Synoptic-scale study of the Arctic polar vortex’s influence on the middle atmosphere: I.  Observations, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D16), 4276, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000681, 2002.
 
Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, J. P. Thayer, C. S. Ruf, and R. L. Collins, Consideration of non-Poisson distributions for Lidar applications, App. Optics, 40, 1488-1492, 2001.
 
Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, and J. P. Thayer, Noctilucent clouds and wave dynamics: Observations at Sondrestrom, Greenland, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2817-2820, 1998.
 
Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, D. D. Meisel, J. P. Thayer, and R. B. Kerr, Investigation of a resonance lidar for measurement of thermospheric metastable helium, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 59, 2023-2035, 1997.
 
 
Professional Review Papers
Meriwether, J. W., and A. J. Gerrard, Mesosphere inversion layers and stratosphere temperature enhancements, Rev. Geophys., 42, RG3003, doi:10.1029/2003RG000133, 2004.
 
 
Papers Appearing in Books
Gerrard, A. J., Application of the Fabry-Pérot Interferometer to Thermospheric-Ionospheric Measurements, Book Appendix, Kelley, M. C. The Earth’s Ionosphere: Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics, Academic Press, Burlington, MA, ISBN:  13:978-0-12-088425-4, 2009.
 
Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, and J. P. Thayer, Year-round temperature and wave measurements of the Arctic middle atmosphere for 1995-1998, Atmospheric Science Across the Stratopause, D. E. Siskind, S. D. Eckermann, and M. E. Summers, Eds., Geophysical Monograph Series 123, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2000.
 
 
Other (Peer-Reviewed) Publications
Kane, T. J., A. J. Gerrard, A. Hassiotis, Global forecasts of thermospheric gravity wave activity as generated from tropospheric sources:  An overview of the FOREGRATS model with application to the prediction of equatorial spread-F, 85th AMS Annual Meeting, 9–13 January 2005, San Diego, California.
 
Gerrard, A. J., Future CEDAR Lidar-Science Challenges, contribution to: CEDAR LIDAR BEYOND PHASE III; ACCOMPLISHMENTS, REQUIREMENTS AND GOALS, A self-assessment by the CEDAR lidar community for the National Science Foundation, R. L. Collins, ed., November 2003.
 
Gerrard, A. J., J. P. Thayer, and T. J. Kane, Mesospheric clouds and the duality of gravity waves, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 83(43), 488, 2002.
 
Gerrard, A. J., Synoptic-scale Variability of Arctic Gravity Wave Activity During Summer and the Potential Impacts on the High Latitude Middle Atmosphere, Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 183 pp, 2002.
 
Gerrard, A. J., C. M. Gerrard, M. A. London, K. A. Soldavin, T. J. Kane, and A. Freed, The Groundhog Oscillation (GO):  Further Evidence For Global Change, Annals of Improbable Research, 7, Jan-Feb, 2001.
 
 
    Andrew Gerrard is currently a Professor at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) located in Newark, NJ and is the Deputy Director of the NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR).  Gerrard’s research interests involve the investigation of the transfer of energy into, and subsequent synoptic effects within, the earth’s upper atmosphere.  Though it is well understood that the upper atmosphere receives substantial amounts of energy from the sun and magnetosphere (i.e., energy from “above” the upper atmosphere), the physical mechanisms associated with this energy input are unclear.  Furthermore, the nature and amount of energy injected into the upper atmosphere from lower altitudes (i.e., energy from the lower and middle atmosphere) is still uncertain and potentially significant.  CSTR one of a few research centers in the world capable of covering experimental investigations ranging from the sun’s surface all the way to Earth’s surface.
    As such, Gerrard has been very active in bringing together both modeling and experimental techniques to address the injection of energy into the upper atmosphere.  Gerrard’s research is currently active on 3 different projects, each of them briefly summarized here: