Δ Physical Units
The following units are implied for numerical constants:
 Length: [l] = µm
 Time: [t] = ms
 Concentration: [c] = µM
 Current: [I] = Q [c] [l]^{3} / [t] = Q 10^{21} moles / ms,
where Q = 2 e
is the charge of a Ca^{2+} ion.
Current can also be specified in pA using the builtin constant pA = 5.182134 [I].
Units for other quantities are derived from the above; for example, units for the
diffusion coefficient are
[l]^{2}/[t] = µm^{2}/ms
Of course, one is free to use a different choice of units; in that case one should ignore the unit
symbols prompted by the program in various text messages.
Δ General syntax
 Definition language is CaseSensitive.
 Comment character is "%": % this is a comment
 Semicolon (";") separates statements that follow one another on the same line:
grid 20 20 20 ; stretch.factor = 1.07
 To continue a definition on another line, put a line continuation string "..."
at the end of the previous line:
Ca.bc Noflux Noflux Noflux Noflux ...
Pump Pump
 A parameter name can be used wherever a numerical value is expected:
grid N N N ; N = 40
 A constant numerical expression may be used for defining any
parameter, i.e.
grid N M M ; N = 2 * M ; M = 10
 If a parameter or construct is defined multiple times within the script,
only the first definition will be used.
 Parameter definitions may appear in arbitrary order throughout the
script, unless the conditional if .. then .. else .. endif
statement is used,
in which case the order of appearance of definitions is arbitrary within each of the
then .. else/endif and else .. endif blocks.
The only exception are Run and current statements which
specify the simulation runs themselves and are executed in the order of their appearance.
 Nontrivial program flow can only be arranged via combined use of the for loop
statement, the conditional "if" .. "then" .. "else" .. "endif"
statement, the "include" statement and the
"print/append" statements (see the description of the
"if" statement).
 Parameter/identifier names can include all kinds of special characters, if the names are enclosed in
quotes:
"Ca\s0\N\S2+\N" = 0.1
(this creates an
xmgrfriendly name with a subscript and a superscript).
Δ Mathematical expression syntax
 A space between two numerical values implies multiplication:
x = 20 exp( y ) is equivalent to x = 20 * exp( y )
 The following functions can be used in numerical expressions:
sinh, cosh, tanh, sin, cos, tan, atan, exp, log, log10, sqr, sqrt, theta,
sigma (sigma(x) = ( 1 + tanh(x) )/2 ), int (integer part of float),
not (logical negation), rand(0) (random number between 0 and 1)
 Time variable is "t"
(to be used only in timedependent variable definitions  see below).
 Operator execution priorities:
Operators are executed in the same order as in the C programming language.
Below all operators are listed according to their execution order, from
highest to lowest:
Unary boolean not operator:
Binary exponentiation operator:
Unary sign operator:
Binary arithmetic operators:
Binary logical operators:
== (equal)  != (not equal) 

Boolean operations: logical operations evaluate to 1 if true, and to 0 if false.
An argument of a logical operator is considered true if greater than zero, and false otherwise.
Logical operators include the binary operators from the table above, and the not( ) function.
The primary use of logical expressions is in the "if" conditional statement, but they may also
be used in other expressions:
F := 2 * (t > 1.0) + (t <= 1.0)
 defines a function of time equal to 1.0 when simulation time is less than 1.0 ms, and equal to 2.0 otherwise.

Constant arrays may be defined, using a spaceseparated list:
Data = 1.2 0.9 0.8 1.1 1.3 1.5 % defines the array
entry = Data{4} % getting the 4th element (Data{4} = 1.1)
The curlybracket references can also be used to extract arguments of a compound definition, such as the
grid definition. Example:
grid 20 40 30
gridString = "The grid size is " grid{1} " by " grid{2} " by " grid{3} " points"
To obtain the number of elements in the array, use array{0}.
For instance, in the above examples grid{0} returns 3, and Data{0} returns 6.
Δ String expressions
A string is a sequence of characters in quotes, either
"..."
or
'...'
;
the closing quote must be the same as the opening quote:
string_variable = "@#$%^!"
To include quote characters in a string, mixandmatch quote types:
doubleQuote = '"'
Any string label/name (for instance, a file name) can be defined as a concatenation of several substrings:
string = token1 token2 ...
where
token1, token2, ... are either strings or numerical expressions. The latter will be
evaluated and their values converted to strings. Example:
param = 4
fileName = "var." 2 * param
plot mute var fileName
The time dependence of a userdefined variable
"var" will be saved in file
"var.8".
This feature is particularly useful when running a
for loop over a parameter value.
There is a sideeffect of this freeform mixing of string and numerical expressions: if a string expression
matches a variable name, it will be interpreted as a variable. In the above example, string defined as
fileName = "var." "param"
is equal to
var.4
, not
var.param
.
Δ The include statement
A script file can import another script file using command
include file_name. The script
file_name
will be inserted at the point where the
include command appears.
One may also use a
string variable as a file name, if it is defined
earlier in the file, i.e.:
script = path "/script"
include script
Δ Commandline parameters
Commandline arguments passed to
CalC are accessible within the script; the
nth
argument is denoted
$n (note that the 1st argument is the script file name itself).
The total number of arguments appearing on the command line is stored into a
constant named
$$
Δ Implemented Geometries
Although the description of various definition commands that follow below
assume a 3D model in cartesian coordinates (the default geometry),
various lowerdimensional geometries have also been implemented.
To specify the model geometry, use the command
geometry = geometry_name
where the
geometry_name
is a geometry label that assumes one of
the string values listed in the table below:
Dimensionality  Geometry label 
Axis labels  Geometry description 
1D 
cartesian.1D  x 
1D model: diffusion along a line 
disc  r 
Diffusion inside a disc: rotationally symmetric geometry 
spherical  r 
Fully spherically symmetric geometry 
2D 
cartesian.2D  x y 
2D model in cartesian coordinates 
cylindrical  r z 
2D model in cylindrical coordinates 
polar  r phi 
2D model in polar coordinates 
conical  r theta 
Model in spherical coordinates, symmetric with respect to phi azimuth angle 
3D 
cartesian.3D << default >>  x y z 
Full 3D model in cartesian coordinates 
spherical.3D  r theta phi 
Full 3D model in spherical coordinates 
cylindrical.3D  r phi z 
Full 3D model in cylindrical coordinates 
When using any of the lowerdimensionality geometries listed above, the argument
lists of many of the definition instructions described below should be shortened.
Additionally, some commands (e.g.,
plot and
axis stretch instructions) use axis labels as arguments,
which assume different string values
depending on the geometry, as listed in the above table. Below is an example
comparing some of the statements for the full 3D geometry in cartesian coordinates
(geometry = cartesian.3D), and the reduced rotationallysymmetric geometry in
conical and
spherical coordinates:
Few special geometry cases (
spherical,
cylindrical and
conical)
are described in more detail below, as an example.
Δ Sphericallysymmetric geometry
When the geometry is spherically symmetric, the 3D problem reduces to a 1D problem in
spherical coordinates. Examples are: a source in the center of a sphere, or a current
uniformly distributed over the surface of a spherical cell.
In this case it is much more efficient to solve the resulting
onedimensional problem. To do so, use the command
geometry = spherical
and only use two parameters when defining the
volume:
where
R0
and
R1
are the inner and outer radii of the spherical shell
that serves as the diffusion space in this case. Only two
boundary
conditions need to be defined, one for the inner and one for the outer surfaces of
the shell.
Similarly, only two parameters specify the Ca current
source:
where
"R"
specifies the radius of the spherical surface over which the current
is uniformly distributed (
R=0
for a problem with a source in the center of a sphere),
and
"dR"
specifies the width of the source current layer in radial direction.
All other commands also remain unchanged; wherever an axis name is needed, use
"r"
,
and omit the
"y", "z"
coordinates. For example,
use
stretch r rmin rmax to stretch
the grid outside of the shell
[rmin, rmax]
, use
Ca[r] to access
calcium concentration at distance
r
from the center,
and
plot 1D Ca to plot the calcium concentration as a function of
distance from the center of the sphere.
Δ Cylindrical geometry
If the geometry of the problem is symmetric with respect to the azimuth angle
phi
in
cylindrical coordinates, the 3D problem reduces to a 2D problem in
coordinates
r
and
z
.
To solve the corresponding 2D problem, include the command
geometry = cylindrical
and only use four parameters when defining the
volume:
where
R0
and
R1
are the inner and outer radii of the volume, and
Z0
and
Z1
are the limiting zvalues.
Only four
boundary
conditions need to be defined.
Similarly, only four parameters specify the Ca current
source:
where
R
,
Theta
specify the location of the source, and optional
parameters
dR
,
dZ
specify the spread of the source.
All other commands are also analogous to their 3D counterparts.
Wherever an axis name is needed, use
"r"
for the radial coordinate,
"z"
for the 2nd coordinate.
and omit the
"z"
coordinate. For example,
use
stretch z zmin zmax to stretch
the grid outside of the domain
[zmin, zmax]
, use
Ca[r,z] to access
calcium concentration at location
{r, z}
, use
plot 1D Ca z r0 to plot the calcium concentration as a function of
z, at a distance
r0
from the center of the sphere.
Δ Conical geometry
If the geometry of the problem is symmetric with respect to the azimuth angle
phi
in spherical coordinates, the 3D problem reduces to a 2D problem in
coordinates
r
and
theta
(e.g., see Klingauf and Neher (1997) Biophys J 72: 674).
To solve the corresponding 2D problem, include the command
geometry = conical
and only use four parameters when defining the
volume:
volume R0 R1 Theta0 Theta1
where
R0
and
R1
are the inner and outer radii of the volume, and
Theta0
and
Theta1
are the limiting angle values, in radian (
0 < Theta0, Theta1 < pi
).
For
Theta0=0
, the volume is a cone.
Only four
boundary
conditions need to be defined.
Similarly, only four parameters specify the Ca current
source:
Ca.source R Theta [ dR dTheta ]
where
R
,
Theta
specify the location of the source, and optional parameters
dR
,
dTheta
specify the spread of the source.
All other commands are also analogous to their 3D counterparts.
Wherever an axis name is needed, use
"r"
for the radial coordinate,
"theta"
for the angle coordinate,
and omit the
"z"
coordinate. For example,
use
stretch theta thetamin thetamax to stretch
the grid outside of the angle domain
[thetamin, thetamax]
, use
Ca[r,theta] to access
calcium concentration at location
{r, theta}
, use
plot 1D Ca theta r0 to plot the calcium concentration as a function of
angle, at a distance
r0
from the center of the sphere.
Δ Geometry definitions:
The simulation space volume can be composed of (is a union of) an arbitrary number of "boxes",
each defined via keyword
"volume", with an arbitrary number of obstacles (barriers
to diffusion of calcium and buffers), each defined using keyword
"obstacle".
Calcium and buffer concentration fields are computed on a mesh of points, specified using keyword
"grid", covering the entire diffusion space. The grid may be
nonuniform.
volume xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax
 defines a box spanning area {xmin < x < xmax, ymin < y < ymax, zmin < z < zmax}.
All bounding coordinates should be in micrometers.
If the diffusion space is composed of several boxes, several volume definitions should be included.
obstacle xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax
 defines a diffusion obstacle spanning an area
{xmin < x < xmax, ymin < y < ymax, zmin < z < zmax}
An arbitrary number of obstacle definitions may be used.
To define areas that are impermeable to buffer molecules, one can also define special buffer obstacles.
This is a simple alternative to defining nonuniform diffusivity through the
tortuosity definition.
The format for a special obstacle is very similar to the definition of a usual obstacle; one only needs to add the
buffer name prefix:
buffer_name.obstacle xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax
Δ Spherical elements:
In CalC versions 6.7 and above and 7.7 and above, in the default
Cartesian 3D geometry
the diffusion volume can be defined as a superposition of spherical enclosures, defined using
sphere xCenter yCenter zCenter radius
Analogously, one can define spherical dffusion obstacles (e.g. vesicles):
sobstacle xCenter yCenter zCenter radius
See a simple example
here.
Note: This feature is still under testing; one should not place distributed Ca^{2+}
sources near a curved boundary, as any overlap will result in a reduced current.
Future versions 6.8 and 7.8 will improve handling of distributed sources near curved boundaries.
Δ Grid specification:
CalC uses a simple cubic grid, which is a direct product of spatial grids along the individual
axes. To define a grid of size
nx by
ny by
nz, use
grid nx ny nz
The number of points in each direction should be an odd integer; an even number will be increased by 1.
When using
geometries with spatial dimensionality of 1 or 2,
use respectively 1 or 2 integer arguments only, corresponding to the respective grid dimensions.
Δ Nonuniform grid:
For the same number of grid points, the accuracy of the computation can be improved by increasing
the density of grid point in the vicinity of calcium channel(s), where the concentration gradients
are the greatest.
If the channel array is enclosed within a region
{xmin < x < xmax, ymin < y < ymax, zmin < z < zmax}, one should use:
stretch x xmin xmax
stretch y ymin ymax
stretch z zmin zmax
 each successive grid interval further away from the region
{xmin < x < xmax, ymin < y < ymax, zmin < z < zmax} will be multiplied by a factor
specified by
stretch.factor, which should be slightly greater than 1.0:
The grid may also be stretched along a single direction (x, y, or z) only.
stretch.factor = value
 sets the grid nonuniformity factor used by
stretch. Recommended values
for the factor value are between 1.05 and 1.2. Using larger values, while making the results converge
faster with increasing
grid dimensions (i.e. spatial resolution), will cause the
results to converge to a slightly wrong answer (stretching the grid introduces an additional
systematic computation error).
In cases when the grid is relatively coarse, it may be desirable to have a grid node pass through
some special coordinate in space:
clamp x y z
 forces the closest grid node to assume coordinates [x,y,z].
Since this will change the neighboring grid spacings, this will
distort the grid, so it's better to do without clamping, if possible.
The
stretch
command syntax is the same for
spherical,
disc,
cylindrical and
conical geometries, except that
one may use, respectively, the direction labels
"r"
,
"r"
and
"z"
,
or
"r"
and
"theta"
, i.e.
stretch r rMin rMax
stretch theta angleMin angleMax
Δ Calcium and buffer definitions:
Definition of each Ca
^{2+} property starts with a label
Ca
followed by a period, then
followed by the property name:
 defines the initial background calcium concentration (in
units of
µM)
Ca.D = expression
 defines the value of the calcium diffusion coefficient (in
units of
µm
^{2}/ms)
Buffer properties definitions have the same syntax. For example, definition of a diffusion coefficient
of a
buffer named
Bf
is
Bf.D = expression
In order to define a diffusion coefficient which is nonuniform in space, use the command
Ca.tortuosity = f(x,y,z)
The diffusion coefficient of Ca
^{2+} will be a product of a spaceindependent term defined
by
Ca.D and the spacedependent term defined by a userspecified function
f(x,y,z)
Example:
Ca.tortuosity = 1  0.5 exp(  20 ( x*x + y*y + z*z ) )
 in this case the Ca
^{2+} diffusion will be reduced in the vicinity of point x = y = z = 0.
Diffusion coefficient of a buffer can be modified the same way, for instance:
buffer Fura
Fura.tortuosity = 1  0.5 sigma( 50 (z  0.2) )
Fura.D = 0.118
............
To define the same tortuosity function for Ca
^{2+} and all the buffers, simply use
tortuosity = f(x,y,z) or
all.tortuosity = f(x,y,z)
Note that the diffusion coefficient should have (approximately) zero derivative at the boundary
in the direction normal to the boundary.
Nonuniform diffusion coefficient is implemented for all cartesian and curvilinear
geometries (1D, 2D and 3D).
Δ
Boundary condition specification:
By default, both calcium and buffers satisfy
zero flux (reflective)
boundary conditions at all surfaces of all geometry elements.
However, boundary conditions may be specified by the user for each
volume
and each
obstacle (including special
buffer obstacles),
by providing the following statement for each geometry element:
Ca.bc
bcXmin bcXmax bcYmin bcYmax
bcZmin bcZmax
This command specifies boundary conditions for each of the six surfaces of a volume element. Each
of the labels
bcXmin ... bcZmax
is either defined by the user via a
bc.define instruction described below, or is one of the two predefined types,
Noflux or
Dirichlet (Bgr), corresponding respectively to
the zero flux (reflective) boundary condition, or to the boundary value clamped to background concentration.
In 2D geometry, only 4 boundary condition types should be specified, and only 2 are needed for 1D geometry.
If a concentration field satisfies the same boundary condition
"bcName"
at all
boundaries of a corresponding volume element, use
Ca.bc all bcName
If several
volumes and/or
obstacles are specified,
the boundary condition definitions appearing earlier in the script will correspond to volume definitions
(in the order those were
defined), and the following boundary condition definitions will correspond to the obstacles, including
any
special buffer obstacles.
Δ
Userdefined boundary condition:
The user definition of a boundary condition type is overloaded for convenience, allowing the following alternative forms:
bc.define bcName A B C n K
bc.define bcName A B
bc.define bcName R
where
bcName
is a userchosen label, and
parameters
A ... R
correspond to the parameters in the respective boundary conditions:
Here
[Ca]
is the Ca
^{2+} concentration at the boundary,
and
[Ca]_{0}
is the
background concentration.
In the first two cases
Flux
is the flux per unit area at the boundary, with default units (in 3D) of
µM µm / ms = 10
^{6} mol / (m
^{2} s),
and therefore the units of
B
are μm/ms = 10
^{3} m/sec, and units of
C
are the same as units of flux. Default units of pump affinity
K
are μM. Nonlinearity power
n
can be any real number greater than 1.
For instance, to simulate a linear saturable calcium pump on the bottom and top ("zmin" and "zmax")
surfaces of a volume, with maximal pump rate of
0.01 µM µm / ms
,
and dissociation rate of
K = 0.2 µM
, use the following command:
bc.define
Pump 1 0 0.01 1 0.2
Ca.bc
Noflux Noflux Noflux Noflux Pump Pump
The
Noflux
(zero flux) and
Dirichlet / Bgr
boundary condition types are defined internally using
Note that if the calcium or a buffer field is to assume a fixed concentration value at the boundary which is not equal to its resting background
concentration, user has to provide his own redefinition for the
Dirichlet
boundary condition (using a different type
label/name, since the bc's already defined may not be redefined); for instance:
bc.define myDirichlet 0.1
Ca.bc all myDirichlet % the Ca concentration value is the background concentration plus
0.1 µM on all boundaries
Finally, note that buffers are assumed to satisfy either noflux or Dirichlet boundary conditions only.
If nonzero flux boundary conditions are desired for a buffer, two additional parameters are required, the
background concentration and mobility of the buffer:
bc.define bcName A B C n K B_bgr DB
Δ
Backwardcompatible boundary condition definition:
For compatibility with versions of CalC preceding 7.6, the following alternative definition may be used:
bc.define bcName A B C P
corresponding to boundary condition
where
d[Ca]/dn
is the derivative normal to the boundary facing out.
The value of
P
is zero by default. For the
pump example above, with
maximal pump rate of
V_{m}=0.01 µM µm / ms
,
and dissociation rate of
K = 0.2 µM
, use
A = 1
,
B = −V_{m} / (K D_{Ca}) = 0.227 (µm^{1})
,
where
D_{Ca}=0.220 µm^{2}/ms
is the calcium diffusion coefficient,
and set
P = 1 / K = 5 µM^{1}
:
bc.define
Pump 1.0 0.227 0.0 5.0
Ca.bc
Noflux Noflux Noflux Noflux Pump Pump
Δ Buffer definitions:
An arbitrary number of buffers with onetoone Ca
^{2+} binding stoichiometry
can be included in the simulation, each defined using
buffer buffer_name
Values specified for the
calcium concentration field
should also be specified for each of the buffers. However,
instead of defining the
background concentration, it is necessary
to define its
total
concentration, using
buffer_name.total = constant_expression
For a mobile buffer, this total concentration is
assumed to be homogeneous throughout the diffusion space.
Example:
buffer myBuffer
myBuffer.D = 0.2
myBuffer.total = 2000
myBuffer.bc all Noflux
% (default setting)
Calcium binding kinetics should be specified for each of the buffers, by
defining two of the following three parameters:
Before the simulation is initiated, the program automatically calculates the initial buffer concentration from its kinetic
parameters and total concentration value, assuming an equilibrium with the defined
background [Ca
^{2+}] (unless the
concentration field is initialized from a disk file using the
import instruction).
A fixed buffer can be localized to a given segment of the simulation volume, by using
a spatiallydependent function in the
total
concentration definition, for instance:
buffer myBuffer
myBuffer.D = 0 % buffer is fixed
myBuffer.total = 2000 * (x*x + y*y + z*z <= 0.01) % buffer is confined
to a spherical region around the origin, with a radius of 0.1 µM
For noncartesian
geometries, remember to use appropriate space variables (axis labels)
in the above expression for the
total
concentration (see
table)
Further, one can define a fixed membranebound buffer, localized to a layer of a given
depth
over the entire boundary surface, using instruction
buffer buffer_name
membrane [ depth ]
where
depth
is an optional numerical constant expression determining the thickness of the
buffer layer surrounding the boundary.
If the
depth
is zero (which is its default value),
the buffer will be localized to one grid layer around the membrane, and the
total
concentration should be specified in units of
molecules per µm^{2}.
[ Note that in this case the buffer concentration will be higher in the corners of an enclosure,
since the corner voxels will include contributions from the buffer bound to all surfaces meeting in that
corner. ]
Δ Buffers with cooperative Ca^{2+} binding
To define a buffer with 1to2 calcium binding stoichiometry named
"B"
, use keyword
buffer cooperative
:
buffer cooperative B
This will create three different concentration fields, with names
B
,
Ca.B
and
Ca2.B
,
corresponding to the calcium binding states of the reaction
B + 2 Ca^{2+} ⇔ CaB + Ca^{2+} ⇔ Ca_{2}B
The rates of the two reactions in the above diagram should be declared as properties of buffers
Ca
and
Ca.B
,
respectively, even though the first unbinding is a property of
Ca.B
, not
B
: this simplifies
the syntax.
For example, the statements below define the properties of calmodulin's Nlobe as reported recently
by
Faas et al. (2011):
buffer cooperative N
N.kplus = 2 * 0.77 % first reaction rate is 0.77 uM^{1}ms^{1}
N.KD = 193 / 2 % affinity of first reaction is 193 uM
Ca.N.kplus = 32 % second reaction rate is 32 uM^{1}ms^{1}
Ca.N.KD = 2 * 0.788 % affinity of second reaction is 788 nM
Note that factors of 2 in above definitions are added to simulate equal probability of binding of the
two Ca
2+ binding sites of the Nlobe of apocalmodulin, and to simulate equal probability of unbinding of each of the
two Ca^{2+} ions from fully calciumsaturated Nlobe.
To simulate Ca^{2+} diffusion in the presence of calmodulin with both lobes intact, a second cooperative buffer
of equal concentration has to be defined, with reaction rates corresponding to the Clobe of calmodulin.
Note that diffusion coefficient of cooperative buffers are allowed to change upon Ca^{2+} biding,
so three diffusivities have to be defined for a cooperative buffer named "B"
: namely, all
three parameters B.D
, Ca.B.D
, and Ca2.B.D
have to be assigned.
If the total concentration is defined for the unbound buffer only (e.g. N.total = 100
), then the fully and partially
bound states of the buffer are assumed to be in equilibrium with the background Ca^{2+}. Alternatively, total concentrations
of all buffer states can be given, in which case the simulation will start from the defined nonequilibrium initial condition, e.g.:
buffer cooperative B
B.total = 100
Ca.B.total = 50
Ca2.B.total = 20
These definitions may or may not represent an equilibrium concentration state, depending on the values of the binding rates and background
Ca^{2+}, defined by Ca.bgr
.
Finally, note that the total concentration of any immobile buffer state can be declared to be a spacedependent function, as in the
case of a noncooperative buffer.
All CalC
instructions straightforwadly generalize to the different states of the cooperative buffer:
for example, to plot the concentration of the doublybound (saturated) state of cooperative buffer named "B"
at a point with coordinates (a; b; c)
, use the standard syntax
plot Ca2.B[a,b,c]
.
Δ Calcium channels:
An arbitrary number of calcium channels can be defined. For each,
channel location and width of the spatial distribution of the current (which is of gaussian shape)
need to be defined, using
Ca.source
x y z [ dx dy dz ]
where the optional parameters dx
, dy
and dz
specify the width of the
source (square brackets indicate that parameters are optional; do not include brackets in the argument list!).
The width parameters dx
, dy
, dz
equal the Gaussian parameter
σ
multiplied by √2
.
The default value for the width parameters is zero, which corresponds to a pointlike source.
However, the pointlike nature of calcium channels introduces a spatial singularity into the problem,
leading to questionable convergence of the numerical method with increasing spatial resolution.
Therefore, unless the calcium concentration in the
microdomain of a single channel is studied, one
should set the width parameters so that the source covers at least 12 grid intervals.
This will improve the numerical accuracy and the convergence properties of the method.
If only the
"dx"
parameter is defined, the source spread in all three directions is assumed to be the same.
The shape of the spatial current distribution function can be changed from a gaussian function to a step function,
using instruction
current.shape square
In this case the current strength is assumed to be spread uniformly over a rectangular area defined by
[x  dx, x + dx] * [y  dy, y + dy] * [z  dz, z + dz]
.
Channels can be located anywhere, either inside the simulation volume or on the boundary.
The Ca^{2+} current magnitude through each channel
is defined using the current / currents
commands.
Δ Volumedistributed Ca^{2+} uptake rate:
There are two ways to define intracellular Ca^{2+} uptake into internal stores such as ER or
mitochondria. First, one can define diffusion obstacles with an appropriate
obstacles boundary condition on all sides of the obstacle. Alternatively, one can
simulate a volumedistributed ER syncytium with a simple linear calcium uptake, using a single rate constant uptake
:
uptake = rate
where rate
is the rate of uptake in units of ms^{1}. Versions 6.7.1+ and 7.7.1+ allow the
rate to be defined as a function of the spatial coordinates, implementing spacedependent calcium uptake.
This linear uptake corresponds to an additional term in the
reactiondiffusion equation for Ca^{2+}:
d[Ca]/dt = D ∇^{2}[Ca] + R([Ca], Buffers)  uptake * ([Ca]  [Ca]_{0})
where [Ca]_{0}
is the background calcium concentration, and R([Ca], Buffers)
contains terms describing buffercalcium binding/unbinding reactions.
Note that as of now CalC does not allow to define calcium release from internal stores.
Δ Local concentration variable:
Local concentration of Ca^{2+} at some location {x,y,z}
is accessed using the
following timedependent construct: Ca[x,y,z]
.
Buffer concentration at a given location can be accessed the same way, via
variable buffer_name[x,y,z]
. If the coordinate {x,y,z}
does not
coincide with any grid node locations, linear nearestneighbour interpolation is used.
Δ Average concentration:
To monitor the average concentration of Ca^{2+}, use the builtin variable
Ca[]
; analogously, the variable tracking average concentration of
unbound buffer named buffer_name
is
buffer_name[]
.
Δ Current and Charge variables
Builtin time dependent variable _ICa gives the current value of the total Ca^{2+} current
entering the volume through all defined channels.
Another predefined variable, _Charge, gives the total Ca^{2+} charge that entered since
the simulation start (it is defined via _Charge = d _ICa / dt). The discrepancy between the
value of the _Charge variable and the actual integral of Ca^{2+} over the simulation
volume is output at the end of each simulation, and can be accessed through the builtin
variable Charge.loss. In the absence of Ca^{2+} uptake, Dirichlet or pump
boundary conditions (which would cause the charge to escape through the surface), this variable can be used as a simulation accuracy
measure.
Δ Defining ODEs
To simulate the binding of calcium to putative neurosecretory/facilitation sensors,
a corresponding system of differential equations (ODEs) has to be defined. A differential
equation is defined using dvariable / dt = expression_for_derivative
, for example
dR / dt =  koff R + kon Ca[0.0,0.0,0.1] ( 1  R )
Alternatively, one may denote differentiation using the backquote "`"
instead of the d/dt
construct, i.e.:
R`=  koff R + kon Ca[0.0,0.0,0.1] ( 1  R )
Note that this differs from the xpp syntax, where
the symbol for defining an ODE is a normal quote.
In the above, the construct Ca[x,y,z]
denotes calcium concentration at point {x,y,z}
(see above).
For each equation, initial boundary condition can be defined:
R(0) = 0.0
The default initial condition is zero.
Note that all initial conditions are ignored if an Import data input statement is included.
Δ Finding the steady state of the ODE system
In order to integrate (see Run definition) the declared system of ODEs starting from a
steady state, rather than from the initial conditions, include the command
equilibrate step_num accuracy initial_time_step
where step_num
is the maximal number of equilibration steps,
accuracy
is the desired accuracy (for the zero derivative condition),
and time_step
is the initial equilibration time. Default values are
step_num = 40000
, accuracy = 1.0e6
and initial_time_step = 1 ms
.
Δ Timedependent variables:
It may be necessary to introduce additional timedependent variables that are functions of ODE
variables; this is done using a command of the form "variable := expression"
, i.e.
dR / dt =
 koff R + kon Ca[0.0,0.0,0.1] U
% same equation as before
U := 1  R
% variable denoting the unbound receptor
Variables (and expressions for derivatives) may depend on time explicitly, through time
variable "t"
There are two more userdefined timedependent variable types, in addition to
variables defined via "d /dt", ":=",
"_ICa"/"_Charge",
and "Ca[x,y,z]"/"Ca[]"
(or "buffer_name[x,y,z]"/"buffer_name[]").
These are table and min (max) variables described below:
Δ Data table from a file:
A timedependent variable can be defined using a twocolumn data file (satisfying the
format "t_{n} f(t_{n})"
, without a comma or other delimiter in between):
variable_name table file_name
Time points don't have to be regularly spaced; linear interpolation will be
used to fill in for other time values.
This command may be useful in cases when one wants to change parameters of the
calcium binding kinetics without having to recalculate the timecourse of
calcium concentration. For instance, in the example script
demo.par,
one may save [Ca] evolution at the site x=y=z=30 nm, assigned to a variable named ca
,
using plot mute ca "ca.dat"
,
and then run the ODEonly version of the script after including the command ca table "ca.dat"
.
Since at this second step only the ODEs corresponding to the calcium binding scheme have to be recalculated,
one should also include the mode = ODE command.
Δ Tracking extremum of a variable:
To obtain the maximum of a variable var
on an interval [T1,T2]
,
use
[ time_var_name ] max_var_name
max var T1 T2
where max_var_name
is the name of the variable tracking the maximum of var
,
and time_var_name
(optional) specifies the name of the variable
that will contain the time value at which the maximum of var
is achieved.
Although one is only interested in the value of max_var_name
once the time point T2
is reached, CalC treats max_var_name
as a timedependent variable, so usual plotting routines
may be used to monitor max_var_name
.
This object is particularly useful in modeling synaptic facilitation, where one is interested in
the peak value of [Ca^{2+}], or a peak of a variable simulating calcium binding site occupancy
(such as "S" in example file demo.par).
The syntax is analogous for tracking the minimum of a variable:
[ time_var_name ] min_var_name
min var T1 T2
Δ Markov process variable:
A discretestate continuoustime stochastic variable can be defined using
variableName markov stateNumber initialState
where the integer parameter stateNumber
specifies the number of markovian states,
and the parameter initialState
specifies the state of the variable at simulation
start.
Only nonzero offdiagonal transition probabilities should be defined, using constant parameters
or timedependent variables with names of form variableName.i.j
. The following example
specifies a markov gating variable with two states:
gate markov 2 0
gate.0.1 = 0.2
gate.1.0 := 0.01 * Ca[0,0,0]
In this example the transition from state 0
to state 1
is
constant at 0.2 per millisecond,
while the backward transition probability 1 > 0
depends on the concentration of Ca^{2+}
at the origin.
Note that special care should be taken if the Ca^{2+} current
depends on the state of a markov
variable, since the Ca^{2+} and
buffer PDEs are integrated deterministically, assuming no stochasticity. In particular, only
a fixed timestep PDE integration method should be used in this
situation, with a small time step
(see an example).
Using markov variables in ODEonly
mode is not recommended.
To change the seed of the random number generator, use the command
seed = longInteger
where longInteger
is a 32bit integer value that will be used to initialize
the highorder 32 bits of the random number generator state.
On Unix platforms, a standard 48bit random number generator
drand48()
is used.
Δ Simulation specifications:
The simulation run itself is defined using instruction Run,
and requires specifying the integration time and the value of the calcium channel
current during the run. There are two main variation for the
Run command,
corresponding to the adaptive (variable timestep) and the
nonadaptive (fixed timestep) methods.
In both cases,
it is also possible to change a particular finitedifference
scheme used by the integrator: see Appendix A.
Δ Adaptive timestep method
When using the adaptive timestep method, the size of the integration time step is
constantly modified to maintain a given level of accuracy (but see below).
The simulation definition syntax in this case is
Run adaptive Time
[ accuracy dtMax dt0 dtStretch ODEaccuracy ]
where Time
is the total integration time (in ms).
The values in brackets are optional and specify the parameters for the adaptive algorithm.
The initial timestep is dt0
, which is reduced if the error tolerance
accuracy
is not met.
Each successive timestep is increased by a multiplicative factor
dtStretch
, slightly
greater than one; the timestep cannot exceed the value of optional parameter dtMax
.
Accuracy checks are performed every n
steps: if accuracy
check is successful,
n
is increased by one, otherwise the time step is halved, and n
is reset
depending on the number of steps since last time step reduction.
If the error is greater than five times the accuracy
tolerance,
the integrator takes a reverse step back to the previous successful accuracy check.
Finally, the value ODEaccuracy
specifies the error tolerance for integration of the
system of ODEs (e.g., corresponding to the userdefined calcium binding receptor kinetics).
Default values are: accuracy=1e5, dt0=1e3, dtMax=0.1, dtStretch=1.03,
ODEaccuracy=1.0e4
.
Values of the adaptive scheme parameters can also be set individually by assigning values to
corresponding predefined identifiers (which are the properties of the adaptive method), i.e.:
adaptive.dtStretch = 1.1; adaptive.accuracy = 1e8; adaptive.dtMax = 0.4
.
Finally, there are two parameters that control the minimal and the maximal number of
integrator steps between successive accuracy checks:
adaptive.steps = 3; adaptive.maxSteps = 20
.
There is little need to change these default values under most circumstances.
Note: parameter adaptive.accuracy
controls the accuracy of a single timestep of the finite difference method.
The only rigorous way to check the solution accuracy is to examine its convergence
using the nonadaptive intergator, by gradually decreasing the
(nonadaptive) timestep
size. That said, under most conditions the adaptive integrator
provides a much more efficient way of obtaining a fairly accurate result, as compared to the
nonadaptive method. If the solution is not sensitive to a change in adaptive.accuracy
parameter, chances are it is pretty accurate.
An additional indirect accuracy check is provided by the total charge conservation
check echoed after each simulation (see here).
Each Run
statement should be accompanied by its own
current
definition statement, which accepts one of the following two forms:
current = expression
or
currents { blankseparated variable list}
where
expression
is a numerical expression, variable name or
a constant specifying the calcium current per
channel. The first form of the current statement is used when the same
current flows through each of the defined Ca^{++} channels.
The second form of the current statement is
used when several channels are present, with distinct Ca^{++} current
magnitudes. In this case the keyword currents
should be followed by a list of variable names,
with the number of variables in the list equal to the number of channels defined by the
Ca.source commands.
Example 1:
Run adaptive 1.0
0.001 1e6
current = 0.2 pA
 Runs the adaptive scheme for 1 ms, with Ca^{++} current of 0.2 pA per channel,
with the initial time step of 1 µsec, and error tolerance of 1.0e6.
Example 2:
Run adaptive 10
currents I1 I2
I1 = 0.1 pA
I2 := t * 0.2 pA
 Runs the adaptive scheme for 10 ms; each of the two variables following the currents
keyword specifies the current through each of the two Ca^{++} sources,
defined elsewhere in the script.
The Ca^{++} current through the first channel is 0.1 pA,
while the current through the second channel is timedependent
(linearly increasing with time).
Δ Fixed timestep method
The syntax for the nonadaptive simulation run is:
Run Time dt [ ODEaccuracy ]
where "Time"
is the total simulation time (in ms),
"dt"
is the simulation timestep, ODEaccuracy
is an optional parameter setting the accuracy
for the integration of ODEs (if any are defined).
As in the case of the adaptive simulation, each Run
statement should be accompanied by
a current
definition statement, described above.
Example 1:
Run 1.0 0.001 1e5
current := 0.2 t^2 pA
 Runs the fixed timestep scheme for 1 ms, with a Ca^{++} current that is increasing
with time quadratically,
with a fixed time step of 1 µsec, and RungeKutta ODE integration error tolerance of 1.0e5.
Example 2:
Run 3.0 0.02
currents I_Ca1 I_Ca2
 Runs the fixed timestep scheme for 3 ms,
with a fixed time step of 20 µsec,
and the Ca^{++} currents of I_Ca1
and I_Ca2
through the
two channels (two Ca.source commands should be present in the script),
where I_Ca1
and I_Ca2
are either constants or timedependent variables defined by the user.
Δ Multiple "Run" definitions
The simulation may be broken down into an arbitrary number of shorter simulations; in
this case, there should be a current definition for each
Run definition. Different algorithms may be used for
successive runs.
Breaking up the simulation into multiple "runs" is desirable when the calcium
channel currents change abruptly during the run, as when simulating channel opening and closing
events. If an adaptive method is used, it is important that the channel current is
continuous during each of the individual "runs". This will limit the error arising from
large current discontinuity.
Thus, it is desirable to use
Run adaptive 1.0
% 1 mslong channel opening
current = 0.2 pA
Run adaptive 3.0
% 3 mslong channel closed period
current = 0
rather than
Run adaptive 4.0
% 4 mslong channel opening
current = 0.2 pA theta( 3  t )
although formally the above two definitions are equivalent.
Δ Numerical accuracy control: Number_Of_Iterations_Per_PDE_Step
The most important hidden parameter controlling the accuracy of the numerical PDE solver is called
Number_Of_Iterations_Per_PDE_Step
, which specifies how many iterations the
numerical engine performs to integrate the nonlinear buffering reaction in each time step. The default value
is equal to 3, but in the case of very fast Ca^{2+} buffering reactions,
its value should be increased to insure accuracy, e.g.
Number_Of_Iterations_Per_PDE_Step = 5
To determine whether the value of this parameter should be changed, run the simulation with noflux
boundary conditions and in the absense of Ca2+ extrusion and clearance mechanisms,
and monitor the Charge.loss
parameter, which is prompted after each simulation run.
Δ Integrating ODEs only
It is also possible to run the ODEs only (see also the table command),
using instruction
mode = ODE
In this case the current definitions are ignored, and the Run
command syntax becomes
Run Time [ accuracy dt0 ]
The adaptive 5thorder CashKarp RungeKutta scheme is used to integrate the ODEs.
Here Time
is the total integration time (in ms), dt0
is the initial time
step, and accuracy
is the accuracy setting.
Default values are: dt0 = 1 ms, accuracy = 1.0e6. These values can be also set through
assignment to the predefined constant names ODE.dt0 and ODE.accuracy:
model = ODE
Run 2.0
ODE.dt0 = 0.1 ; ODE.accuracy = 1e5
Δ
Graphics / data output
To plot or save the simulation results, plot instructions should
be included. The type of output produced by plot instructions
is controlled by the plot.method
command.
To view the results in real time using the xmgr or the xmgrace programs,
include the following command:
plot.method xmgr
[ rows cols ]
This instructs the program to produce an ASCII stream of commands interpretable by
xmgrace/xmgr.
Xmgrace /
xmgr is a powerful GNU
data graphing application. Optional parameters "rows"
and "cols"
specify the arrangement of graphs within xmgr session window. If this plot method is used,
the program output should be piped into an xmgr/xmgrace session, using
"calc file.par  xmgr pipe"
.
Only simple (point) and 1D plot types will work in
this regime; other plot types will be ignored. xmgr
is the recommended plot method,
since in this case data goes directly into a dedicated graphics application that can be used to
produce publicationquality graphs. Note that to run xmgr/xmgrace under Windows environment,
an Xserver must be installed first.
Note that there is a slight difference in viewport coordinates used by xmgrace vs xmgr.
To correct for these differences, include one of the following two commands in the script file if
you are using xmgrace:
xmgrace.style portrait
or
xmgrace.style landscape
In addition, you can control the margins and graph spacing through the use of the following builtin parameters (default values
are shown for each parameter):
xmgr.bottom = 0.1
xmgr.top = 0.1
xmgr.left = 0.1
xmgr.right = 0.06
xmgr.xspace = 0.12
xmgr.yspace = 0.12
The default plot method is
plot.method mute
 instructs the program to ignore all plot commands with the exception of
mute, 1D.mute and 2D.mute file plots.
Data for each of the (nonmute) plots will be written to a file,
if one includes the following command:
plot.print file_prefix
File names will be composed of the file_prefix
and the name of the variable to be plotted. This will work even in the
plot.method mute regime. The format of the data files produced
in this case is the same as the format used by the
mute, 1D.mute and 2D.mute
plot types (see below).
Below follows a list of implemented plot types.
Δ Plot command (simple variable plot)
Plot of a timedependent variable (defined via "d /dt=", ":=",
"Ca[x,y,z]" (or "buffer_name[x,y,z]"), "peak"
or "table").
Syntax in the plot.method xmgr mode is
plot variable1
[ variable2 variable3 ... ]
where variable1, variable2, variable3, ...
is a sequence of variable names to be plotted
on the same panel of an xmgr graph.
To produce a data file instead of plotting, use
plot mute variable file_name
where variable
is the name of the variable to be saved to file file_name
,
in the twocolumn format
"time variable(time)"
. One can also use the plot.print
command to write all defined simple plots to twocolumn data files.
The number of times each plot is refreshed is controlled by two parameters specifying respectively
the resolution along the absicca (time) and ordinate (concentration value) axes; their names and default values are:
plot.steps.point = 600 % minimal number of update steps along xaxis
update.accuracy = 0.001 % relative resolution along yaxis
Δ "1D" plot
Plot of a concentration field (calcium or buffer) along an axis.
Syntax in the plot.method xmgr mode is
plot 1D
field axis coord1 coord2 [ sets ]
where field
is the concentration field label (either Ca
or the buffer name defined
via buffer command), axis
is the axis label ("x"
,
"y"
or
"z"
for 3D
geometry, "r"
or "theta"
for the
conical geometry, etc.), {coord1,coord2}
is the coordinate of the
point in the
plane perpendicular to the chosen axis
, at the intersection with that axis
,
and the optional parameter sets
denotes the number of data sets (corresponding to
several previous time steps) that will be shown (default is 5).
To produce a data file instead of plotting, use
plot 1D.mute
field axis coord1 coord2 filename
Data will be saved as a 3column ASCII file filename
, for several different time values;
in each row the 1st number is the time, the 2nd value is the space coordinate along the chosen
direction, and the third value is the corresponding value of the concentration field.
The number of refresh (plot update)
steps per simulation is set to 200 by default; it may be changed by assigning a value to the parameter
plot.steps.1D
. If this number is equal to "1"
, the concentration field values
are only saved at the end of the simulation, as a twocolumn ASCII file, with the first column specifying
the coordinate along the chosen axis, and the second number specifying the concentration value.
Note that for all 2D geometries, the
argument coord2
should be omitted.
For all 1D geometries,
one should omit all three arguments axis
, coord1
and coord2
.
One can also use the plot.print
command to write 1D
nonmute plot data to a file.
Δ "2D" plot
To produce a file plot of the concentration profile in a 2D plane, use the command
plot 2D.mute
field axis coord Time filename
where field
is the concentration field label (either Ca
or the buffer name defined
via the buffer command), axis
is the name of the axis perpendicular
to the plane of the 2D plot
("x"
, "y"
or "z"
), and coord
is the coordinate of a
point along this axis at which it intersects the chosen 2D plane.
This command will produce a 3column ASCII file; in each row the first two numbers specify the 2D coordinate
in the chosen plane, and the 3rd number is the value of the field at that point, at time T
.
The file format is chosen for compatibility with the
gnuplot plotting program, available for both Unix and Windows platforms.
Note that for all 2D geometries,
the two arguments axis
and coord
should be omitted.
The plot 2D.mute
statement is equivalent to a nonmute plot 2D
statement combined with the
plot.print command instructing CalC to save such 2D
plot to a file.
Δ "Binary" plot: saving a concentration field to a file as binary data
It may be desirable to store the entire 3D concentration field to disc in binary format, in order to plot different
"slices" of concentration field later using a MATLAB script, for instance. This is accomplished by a command
plot binary field file_name
where field
is the concentration field (either Ca
or the buffer name defined
via buffer command), to be saved in file file_name.
The default number of saved time points per simulation is 40; this may be adjusted by assigning a different value to internal
control parameter plot.steps.binary
.
The binary data is written in the following sequence: (1) an integer specifying the geometry (for Cartesian geometry, this is simply
the number of dimensions); (2) one to three integers specifying the number of nodes along each axis; (3) one to three
double arrays specifying the coordinates of the axis nodes; (4) finally, for each time point, a time value (double precision) followed
by the field concentration as a double precision array over all nodes.
A simple MATLAB script (see example readBinaryPlot.m)
can be used to plot this binary data once the simulation is complete; consult this script for information about the binary file
format.
To save the concentration fields at a single specified time point only, see dump plot below.
Δ "Dump" plot: saving a concentration field to a file at specific time point
Similar to "binary" plot above, but saves the binary concentration field at one specific timepoint only, and without any other
simulationspecific information:
plot dump
field T file_name
where field
is the concentration field (either Ca
or the buffer name defined
via buffer command), to be saved in file file_name at simulation time T.
This dump plot is particularly useful when combined
with the import command to read it back into another simulation.
To save all of the concentration fields and ODE variables to a file, use command
Export instead.
Δ Logarithmic plots
To plot data on a linearlog
scale, simply append the suffix .log
to
a corresponding plot type, i.e.
plot mute.log Ca[0.1,0.1,0.1] "Ca.dat"
plot 2D.log
Ca z 0.2
Δ Putting text on the graphs
This feature is currently implemented for the xmgr plot mode only.
To print a string anywhere within the xmgr plot, use the command
plot.string string
[ x y charSize font color ]
where string
is the string to be plotted, {x, y}
is the
string position within the graph in xmgr viewport coordinates (between 0 and 1),
charSize
is the character size (default is 0.8), font
it
the xmgr font code (default is 4), and color
it the xmgr
color code (default is 4  blue).
If several plot.string
commands are included, and the optional
coordinate arguments are omitted, each successive string will be printed directly
below the preceding string.
Δ
More data input / output
Δ Importing 3D concentration field from a file:
Instead of initializing the concentration of a field
(where field
is either Ca
or
the buffer name defined via buffer command) with the defined resting background
value or the value derived from the total value, one can read the 3D concentration field from a
file (generated via the plot dump command), using
field.import file_name
where file_name
is
the name of the file to be read.
To import all of the defined concentration fields (i.e., calcium plus buffers) at once,
use command Import described below.
Δ
Saving and retrieving data from a file: Import/Export commands
Apart from the import command and the plot dump
command used to read and save the data corresponding to a single concentration field,
one can also store and retrieve the entire simulation state (calcium and buffer fields plus
the values of ODE variables) via a single command:
Export T
file_name
 instructs the program to store the entire simulation state to file file_name
at simulation time T
.
Import filename
 instructs the program to import the simulation state stored using command Export
.
In ODE mode, the
Import
statement overrides all initial condition definitions in this case.
Δ
Printing strings and numbers to a file: print / append commands
To write the values of parameters and variables to a file at the end of the simulation, use
print file_name token1 token2 token3 ...
where file_name
is the name of the file to which the output is directed, and
token1, token2, ...
are either strings or numerical expressions.
To print the data to the terminal, use the names of the standard i/o streams stderr
or stdout
for the file_name
.
To write
several lines of output to a file, after the first print
command use commands
append file_name token1 token2 token3 ...
 same as the print
command, except that file_name
has to exist
when this command is invoked.
Any string that can be interpreted as a numerical expression will be converted to a numerical value,
so the statement
var = 4
print stderr "var" "=" var
will print 4=4
. However, the command print stderr "var=" var
will produce the expected result var=4
.
The first file_name
argument can be omitted, and instead a single output file can be
specified for all print / append
commands, using the statement
print.file = file_name
A carriagereturn (new line) control character is added to the file file_name
for each print / append
command.
Note that the print statements are invoked only after the end of the simulation runs,
so all expressions in the argument list will be computed based on the final values of
timedependent variables
Δ
Flow control statements (preprocessor commands)
The most flexible flow control can be achieved by calling CalC
from a MATLAB
or Mathematica
script (or any other wrapper script), and using the include
statement to load the part of the script that is changed by the wrapper program. However, CalC
does have some
useful builtin flowcontrol features, described below.
The flowcontrol instructions are special in the sense that they are not definitions,
like other commands described above,
but represent tools controlling the parsing of the script itself. To this extent
they are analogous to the C language preprocessor statements. Also,
unlike all other CalC
commands (definitions), the effect of some of these preprocessor
statements may depend on their exact position in the script file.
Δ Repeating the simulation for multiple parameter values
If it is necessary to run the entire simulation many times as one or several
simulation parameters are changed, one can use the "for"
command. The syntax of the for cycle is:
for parameter_name =
initial_value_expression to end_value_expression
step increment_expression
For instance, one may want to explore the convergence of the results as
spatial resolution is increased, using:
grid N N N
for N = 10 to 40 step 2
Nested for
loops are realized by using several "for" commands.
The topmost for
loop is the outer loop, and each successive for
command implies a
cycle nested within the preceding cycle.
If the "for" loop command is present, then all
nonmute plot commands are ignored,
and one can use the track
command to monitor the results:
track var1 var2 ....
where var1, var2, ...
are names of variable to be monitored.
The results will be
automatically printed to a file, and graph plots will be produced also, depending on the
specified plot.method.
The data is output in the form of pairs of values
"parameterValue varValueAtEndOfSimulation"
.
The file names will be composed of the file prefix specified by the plot.print
command, if it is present, and followed by the name of the variable. When using
xmgr plot method, arguments of the same track command
will be plotted in a single graph panel. To plot different variables in separate
graph panels, use several track
commands.
Do not use concentration construct variables in the track
statements; instead, assign it to a variable and track the variable, i.e.
X := Ca[0.5,0.5,0.5]; track X
NOTE: Although the for
statement can appear anywhere within the script,
like all parameter definitions, in the presence of the conditional if statement
one has to make sure that it is in the accessible part of the if .. then .. else
block.
Δ The conditional statement: if / then / else / endif
The conditional if
statement allows conditional processing of the
script (this is analogous to C preprocessor commands):
if expression then
...........
statements
...........
else
...........
statements
...........
endif
where the else
clause is optional and the expression
is a logical expression. Note that the if
statement is
really a "preprocessor" command, meaning that this logical instruction controls the parsing
of the script. Therefore, the logical expression may only depend on
parameters defined earlier in the script.
Although the expression
only depends on the predefined timeindependent parameters,
the if
statement allows implementing nontrivial algorithms when used
in conjunction with the for loop statement, the
include command, and the print/append
commands. Here's how it works: at each for
loop iteration the results
of the simulation can be printed to a file using the print/append
commands, in the format of parameter definitions (i.e. print file "x0=" x
).
If the include
statement appearing at the beginning of the script file imports the resulting file,
then at each new for
loop iteration the results of the previous iteration
may influence the execution. For instance, an if
conditional statement may contain
a clause depending on the value of the saved parameter (i.e., if x0 > 1.0 then ...
).
Δ Program termination command: exit
When both "if" and "for"
statements are used, it may be desirable to terminate the program once a certain
condition is satisfied. For this purpose, include the statement
exit
If this statement appears in an accessible part of the script file (as determined
by conditional "if" statements), the program will be terminated before
any useful action is performed.
Δ Skip a forloop iteration: continue
When a "for" statement is present, it may desirable to skip a loop iteration,
for instance when a certain condition is satisfied. To skip an iteration, simply include the command
continue
The action of the continue
statement is analogous to its use in other highlevel
programming languages.
Δ
Appendix B: controlling verbosity level
To control the program's commentary, use
verbose = level
To stop the program from commenting on everything it does, use verbose = 0
.
The default level
value is 2. Values higher than 5 are only useful for debugging.
Δ
Appendix B: debugging the script
When using the if/then/else/endif statement for conditional processing of the parameter
file, it may be necessary to track the parsing of the file to ensure the desired
order of processing of definitions. There are two tools for such debugging:
 Instruction
debug
will cause the parser to print out to the terminal every token
following the debug
statement, as the file is parsed.
 The command
echo string
will cause the parser to print out the value of the string
at parse time. If string
matches a name of a parameter (either string or numerical)
defined earlier in the file, the value of that parameter will be printed instead.
[back to top]
Victor Matveev
Last modified: Jan 11, 2014