Liu (SWRL/NJIT)
chang.liu (at)


Distinguished Research Professor
Institute for Space Weather Sciences
Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research
New Jersey Institute of Technology
323 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.
Newark, NJ 07102-1982

Phone:  (973) 596-5760  Fax: (973) 596-3617
Office: 403 Tiernan Hall
M. S. in Computer Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Aug 2017
Ph. D. in Applied Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Jan 2007

M. S. in Physics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick, NJ, Oct 2002
B. S. in Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China, Jul 2000

Excellence in Research by Research Professor Award,
College of Science and Liberal Arts, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2017
First Prize of Graduate Division, Second Annual Provost's Student Research Showcase,
New Jersey Institute of Technology, 2006
Studentship Award, American Astronomical Society, Solar Physics Division, 2004 and 2006
Outstanding Graduate of Nanjing University, 2000

Refereed Cross-discipline Papers:
Liu, C., Deng, N., Wang, J. T.L., & Wang, H. 2017, Predicting Solar Flares Using SDO/HMI Vector Magnetic Data Product and Random Forest Algorithm, ApJ, 843, 104 [accompanying site]
Liu, H., Liu, C., Wang, J. T.L., & Wang, H. 2019, Predicting Solar Flares Using a Long Short-term Memory Network, ApJ, 877, 121

Project in charge involving big data handling and processing:
Solar Film Digitization Project

In the News
RHESSI Science Nugget (24 October 2016): Flare-induced Impulsive Sunspot Rotation caught in High Resolution
NJIT Press Release (11 Oct 2016):
The Sun's Coronal Tail Wags its Photospheric Dog

HMI Science Nugget (27 Oct 2014): Surface and Coronal Field Signatures of Implosions in Two Homologous Solar Flares
RHESSI Science Nugget (20 Nov 2006): Ribbon-like hard X-ray source

First-authored Papers (Full List at ADS Public Library):
(19) Liu, C., Lee, J., & Wang, H. 2019,
The Eruption of Outer Spine-Like Loops Leading to A Double-Stage Circular-Ribbon Flare, ApJ, 883, 47
(18) Liu, C.
, Cao, W., Chae, J., Ahn, K., Choudhary, D. P., Lee, J., Liu, R., Deng, N., Wang, J., & Wang, H. 2018, Evolution of Photospheric Vector Magnetic Field Associated with Moving Flare Ribbons as Seen by GST, ApJ, 869, 21
(17) Liu, C., Deng, N., Wang, J. T.L., & Wang, H. 2017, Predicting Solar Flares Using SDO/HMI Vector Magnetic Data Product and Random Forest Algorithm, ApJ, 843, 104 [accompanying website]
(16) Liu, C., Xu, Y., Cao, W., Deng, N., Lee, J., Hudson, H.S., Gary, D.E., Wang, J., Jing, J., & Wang, H. 2016, Flare differentially rotates sunspot on Sun's surface, Nature Communications, 7, 13104 [ADS]
(15) Liu, C., Deng, N., Liu, R., Lee, J., Pariat, E., Wiegelmann, T., Liu, Y., Kleint, L., & Wang, H. 2015, A Circular-ribbon Solar Flare Following an Asymmetric Filament Eruption, ApJ Letters, 812, L19
(14) Liu, C., Deng, N., Lee J., Wiegelmann, T., Jiang C., Dennis B. R., Su Y., Donea A. & Wang H. 2014, Three-dimensional Magnetic Restructuring in Two Homologous Solar Flares in the Seismically Active NOAA AR 11283, ApJ, 795, 128
(13) Liu, C., Deng N., Lee, J., Wiegelmann T., Moore, R.L., & Wang, H. 2013, Evidence for Solar Tether-cutting Magnetic Reconnection from Coronal Field Extrapolations, ApJ Letters, 778, L36(7pp)
(12) Liu, C., Xu, Y., Deng, N., Lee, J., Zhang, J., Choudhary, D. P. & Wang, H. 2013, He I D3 Observation of the 1984 May 22 M6.3 Solar Flare, ApJ, 774, 60(9pp)
Liu, C., Deng, N., Liu, R., Lee, J., Wiegelmann, T., Jing, J., Xu, Y., Wang, S. & Wang, H. 2012, Rapid Changes of Photospheric Magnetic Field After Tether-cutting Reconnection and Magnetic Implosion, ApJ Letters, 745, L4
(10) Liu, C., Deng, N., Liu, R., Ugarte-Urra, I., Wang, S. & Wang, H. 2011, A Standard-to-Blowout Jet, ApJ Letters, 735, L18
(9) Liu, C., Lee, J., Jing, J., Liu, R., Deng, N. & Wang, H. 2010, Motions of Hard X-ray Sources During an Asymmetric Eruption, ApJ Letters, 721, L193
(8) Liu, C., Lee, J., Karlicky, M., Choudhary, D. P., Deng, N. & Wang, H. 2009, The Successive Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections on 2005 September 13, ApJ, 703, 757
(7) Liu, C. & Wang, H. 2009, Reconnection Electric Field and Hardness of X-ray Emission of Solar Flares, ApJ Letters, 696, L27
(6) Liu, C., Lee, J., Jing, J., Gary, D. E. & Wang, H. 2008, The Spatial Distribution of Hard X-Ray Spectral Index and Local Magnetic Reconnection Rate, ApJ Letters, 672, L69
(5) Liu, C., Lee, J., Yurchyshyn, V., Deng, N., Cho, K., Karlicky, M. & Wang, H. 2007, The Eruption from a Sigmoidal Solar Active Region on 2005 May 13, ApJ, 669, 1372
(4) Liu, C., Lee, J., Gary, D. E. & Wang, H. 2007, The Ribbon-Like Hard X-Ray Emission in a Sigmoidal Solar Active Region, ApJ Letters, 658, L127 (Also see RHESSI Science Nuggets #40; RHESSI's Tenth Anniversary)
(3) Liu, C., Lee, J., Deng, N., Gary, D. E. & Wang, H. 2006, Large-Scale Activities Associated with the 2003 October 29 X10 Flare, ApJ, 642, 1205
(2) Liu, C., Deng, N., Liu, Y., Falconer, D., Goode, P. R., Denker, C. & Wang, H. 2005, Rapid Change of Delta Spot Structure Associated with Seven Major Flares, ApJ, 622, 722
(1) Liu, C., Qiu, J., Gary, D. E., Krucker, S. & Wang, H. 2004, Studies of Microflares in RHESSI Hard X-ray, Big Bear Solar Observatory H-alpha and Michelson Doppler Imager Magnetograms, ApJ, 604, 442

Other Selected Refereed Papers (Full List at ADS Public Library):
(51) Wang, H., Liu, C., Ahn, K., Xu, Y., Jing, J., Deng, N., Huang, N., Liu, R., Kusano, K., Fleishman, G. D., Gary, D. E., Cao, W. 2017, High-resolution observations of flare precursors in the low solar atmosphere, Nature Astronomy, 1, 0085
(50) Deng, N., Yurchyshyn, V., Tian, H., Kleint, L., Liu, C., Xu, Y., & Wang, H. 2016, Multi-wavelength Study of Transition Region Penumbral Subarcsecond Bright Dots Using IRIS and NST, ApJ, 829, 103(8pp)   
(49) Lee, J., Liu, C., Jing, J., Chae, J. 2016, Solar Eruption and Local Magnetic Parameters, ApJL, 831, L18(7pp)
(48) Lee, J., Liu,. C., Jing, J., & Chae, J. 2016, Solar Multiple Eruptions from a Confined Magnetic Structure, ApJL, 829, L1(6pp)
(47) Ye, D.-D., Liu, C., & Wang, H. 2016, Irreversible rapid changes of magnetic field associated with the 2012 October 23 circular near-limb X1.8 Flare, RAA, 16, 010
(46) Jing, J., Xu, Y., Cao, W., Liu, C., Gary, D., & Wang, H. 2016, Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope, Scientific Reports, 6, 24319
(45) Xu, Y., Cao, W., Ding, M., Kleint, L., Su, J., Liu, C., Ji, H., Chae, J., Jing, J., Cho, K., Cho, K., Gary, D., & Wang, H. 2016, Ultra-narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830 Å Using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope, ApJ, 819, 89(10pp)   
(44) Liu, R., Kliem, B., Titov, V.S., Chen, J., Wang, Y., Wang, H., Liu, C., Xu, Y., & Wiegelmann, T. 2016, Structure, Stability, and Evolution of Magnetic Flux Ropes from the Perspective of Magnetic Twist, ApJ, 818, 148(22pp)
(43) Joshi, N.C., Liu, C., Sun, X., Wang, H., Magara, T., Moon, & Y.-J., 2015, The Role of Erupting Sigmoid in Triggering a Flare with Parallel and Large-scale Quasi-circular Ribbons, ApJ, 812, 50(15pp)
(42) Jing, J., Xu, Y., Lee, J., Nitta, N.V.; Liu, C., Park, S.-H., Wiegelmann, T., & Wang, H. 2015, Comparison between the eruptive X2.2 flare on 2011 February 15 and confined X3.1 flare on 2014 October 24, RAA, 15, 1537
(41) Wang, H., Cao W., Liu, C., Xu Y., Liu R., Zeng Z., Chae J., & Ji H. 2015, Witnessing magnetic twist with high-resolution observation from the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope, Nature Communications, 6, 7008
(40) Wang, H. & Liu, C. 2015,  Structure and Evolution of Magnetic Fields Associated with Solar Eruptions (Invited Review), RAA, 15, 145
(39) Chen, X., Deng N., Lamb, D. A, Jing J., Liu C., Liu R., Park S.-H., & Wang H. 2015, Development of Technique to Detect and Classify Small-Scale Magnetic Flux Cancellation and Rapid Blueshifted Excursions, RAA, 15, 1012
(38) Deng, N., Chen, X., Liu, C., Jing, J., Tritschler, A., Reardon, K. P., Lamb, D. A., Deforest, C. E., Denker, C., Wang, S., Liu, R. & Wang, H. 2014, Chromospheric Rapid Blueshifted Excursions Observed with IBIS and their Association with Photospheric Magnetic Field Evolution, ApJ, 799, 219(9pp.)
(37) Kliem, B., Török, T., Titov, V. S., Lionello, R., Linker, J. A., Liu, R., Liu, C., & Wang, H. 2014,  Slow Rise and Partial Eruption of a Double-decker Filament. II. A Double Flux Rope Model, ApJ, 792, 107
(36) Jing, J., Liu, C., Lee, J., Wang, S., Wiegelmann, T., Xu, Y. & Wang, H. 2014, Evolution of a Magnetic Flux Rope and its Overlying Arcade Based on Nonlinear Force-free Field Extrapolations, ApJ Letters, 784, L13
(35) Wang, S., Liu, C., Deng, N., & Wang H. 2014, Sudden Photospheric Motion and Sunspot Rotation Associated with the X2.2 Flare on 2011 February 15, ApJ Letters, 782, L31
(34) Wang, H., Liu, C., Deng, N., Zeng, Z., Xu, Y., Jing, J. & Cao, W. 2014, Study of Two Successive Three-Ribbon Solar Flares on 2012 July 6, ApJ Letters, 781, L23
(33) Wang, H., Liu, C., Wang, S., Deng, N., Xu, Y., Jing, J. & Cao W. 2013, Study of Rapid Formation of a Delta Sunspot Associated with the 2012 July 2 C7.4 Flare Using High-resolution Observations of New Solar Telescope, ApJ Letters, 774, L24
(32) Liu, R., Liu, C., Xu, Y., Liu, W., Kliem, B., Wang, H. 2013, Observation of a Moreton wave and wave-filament interactions associated with the renowned X9 flare on 1990 May 24, ApJ, 773, 166
(31) Deng, N., Tritschler, A., Jing, J., Chen, X., Liu, C., Reardon, K., Denker, C., Xu, Y. & Wang, H. 2013, High-cadence and High-resolution Hα Imaging Spectroscopy of a Circular Flare's Remote Ribbon with IBIS, ApJ, 769, 112(11pp)
(30) Wang, H. & Liu, C. 2012, Circular Ribbon Flares and Homologous Jets, ApJ, 760, 101(9pp)
(29) Xu, Y., Liu, C., Jing, J. & Wang, H. 2012, On the Relationship Between Coronal Magnetic Decay Index and CME Speed, ApJ, 761, 52(6pp)
(28) Liu, R., Liu, C., Török, T., Wang, Y. & Wang, H. 2012, Contracting and Erupting Components of Sigmoidal Active Regions, ApJ, 757, 150
(27) Wang, S., Liu, C. & Wang, H. 2012, The Relationship between the Sudden Change of the Lorentz Force and the Magnitude of Associated Flares, ApJ Letters, 757, L5
(26) Liu, R., Kliem, B., Török, T., Liu, C., Titov, V. S., Lionello, R., Linker, J. A. & Wang, H. 2012, Slow Rise and Partial Eruption of a Double-decker Filament. I. Observations and Interpretation, ApJ, 756, 59
(25) Jing, J., Park, S. H., Liu, C., Lee, J., Wiegelmann, T., Xu, Y., Deng, N. & Wang, H. 2012, Evolution of Relative Magnetic Helicity and Current Helicity in NOAA Active Region 11158, ApJ Letters, 752, L9
(24) Wang, H., Deng, N. & Liu, C. 2012, Rapid Transition of Uncombed Penumbrae to Faculae during Large Flares, ApJ, 748, 76
(23) Wang, S., Liu, C., Liu, R., Deng, N., Liu, Y. & Wang, H. 2012, Response of the Photospheric Magnetic Field to the X2.2 Flare on 2011 February 15, ApJ Letters, 745, L17
(22) Verma, M., Balthasar, H., Deng, N., Liu, C., Shimizu, T., Wang, H. & Denker, C. 2012, Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images. II. Flow fields in the final stages of sunspot decay, A&A, 538, A109
(21) Liu, R., Wang, T., Lee, J., Stenborg, G., Liu, C., Park, S. & Wang, H. 2011, Observing the reconnection region in a transequatorial loop system, RAA, 11, 1209
(20) Deng, N., Liu, C., Prasad Choudhary, D. & Wang, H. 2011, Rapid Enhancement of Sheared Evershed Flow Along the Neutral Line Associated with an X6.5 Flare Observed by Hinode, ApJ Letters,733, L14
(19) Liu, R., Liu, C., Wang, S., Deng, N. & Wang, H. 2010, Sigmoid-to-flux-rope Transition Leading to a Loop-like Coronal Mass Ejection, ApJ Letters, 725, L84
(18) Liu, R., Lee, J., Wang, T., Stenborg, G., Liu, C. & Wang, H. 2010, A Reconnecting Current Sheet Imaged in a Solar Flare, ApJ Letters, 723, L28
(17) Liu, R., Liu, C., Park, S. & Wang, H. 2010, Gradual Inflation of Active-region Coronal Arcades Building up to Coronal Mass Ejections, ApJ, 723, 229
(16) Wang, H. & Liu, C. 2010, Observational Evidence of Back Reaction on the Solar Surface Associated with Coronal Magnetic Restructuring in Solar Eruptions, ApJ Letters, 716, L195
(15) Ji, H., Wang, H., Liu, C. & Dennis, B. R. 2008, A Hard X-Ray Sigmoidal Structure during the Initial Phase of the 2003 October 29 X10 Flare, ApJ, 680, 734
(14) Deng, N., Choudhary, D., Tritschler, A., Denker, C., Liu, C. & Wang, H. 2007, Flow Field Evolution of a Decaying Sunspot, ApJ, 671, 1013
(13) Wang, H., Liu, C., Jing, J. & Yurchyshyn, V., 2007, Successive Flaring during the 2005 September 13 Eruption, ApJ, 671, 973
(12) Chen, W., Liu, C., Song, H., Deng, N., Tan, C. & Wang, H. 2007, A Statistical Study of Rapid Sunspot Structure Change Associated with Flares, CHJAA, 7, 733
(11) Jing, J., Lee, J., Liu, C., Gary, D. E. & Wang, H. 2007, Hard X-Ray Intensity Distribution along Hα Ribbons, ApJ Letters, 664, L127
(10) Liu, Y., Kurokawa, H., Liu, C., Brooks, D. H., Dun, J., Ishii, T. T. & Zhang, H. 2007, The X10 Flare on 29 October 2003: Was It Triggered by Magnetic Reconnection between Counter-Helical Fluxes?, Sol. Phys., 240, 253
(9) Yurchyshyn, V., Liu, C., Abramenko, V. & Krall, J. 2006, The May 13, 2005 Eruption: Observations, Data Analysis and Interpretation, Sol. Phys., 239, 317
(8) Deng, N., Xu, Y., Yang, G., Cao, W., Liu, C., Rimmele, T. R., Wang, H. & Denker, C. 2006, Multiwavelength Study of Flow Fields in Flaring Super Active Region NOAA 10486, ApJ, 644, 1278
(7) Xu, Y., Cao, W., Liu, C., Yang, G., Jing, J., Denker, C., Emslie, A. G. & Wang, H. 2006, High-Resolution Observations of Multiwavelength Emissions during Two X-Class White-Light Flares, ApJ, 641, 1210
(6) Wang, H., Liu, C., Deng, Y. & Zhang, H. 2005, Reevaluation of the Magnetic Structure and Evolution Associated with the Bastille Day Flare on 2000 July 14, ApJ, 627, 1031
(5) Deng, N., Liu, C., Yang, G., Wang, H. & Denker, C. 2005, Rapid Penumbral Decay Associated with an X2.3 Flare in NOAA Active Region 9026, ApJ, 623, 1195
(4) Qiu, J., Liu, C., Gary, D. E., Nita, G. M. & Wang, H. 2004, Hard X-Ray and Microwave Observations of Microflares, ApJ, 612, 530
(3) Xu, Y., Cao, W., Liu, C., Yang, G., Qiu, J., Jing, J., Denker, C. & Wang, H. 2004, Near-Infrared Observations at 1.56 Microns of the 2003 October 29 X10 White-Light Flare, ApJ Letters, 607, L131
(2) Wang, H., Liu, C., Qiu, J., Deng, N., Goode, P. R. & Denker, C. 2004, Rapid Penumbral Decay following Three X-Class Solar Flares, ApJ Letters, 601, L195
(1) Wang, H., Ji, H., Schmahl, E. J., Qiu, J., Liu, C. & Deng, N. 2002, Sudden Disappearance of a Small Sunspot Associated with the 2002 February 20 M2.4 Flare, ApJ Letters, 580, L177

Last Updated: June 2019