A fallacy is incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric resulting in a lack of validity, or more generally, a lack of soundness. Fallacies are either formal fallacies or informal fallacies.
 Formal fallacies
A formal fallacy is an error in logic that can be seen in the argument's form. All formal fallacies are specific types of non sequiturs.
 Propositional fallacies
A propositional fallacy is an error in logic that concerns compound
propositions. For a compound proposition to be true, the truth values of
its constituent parts must satisfy the relevant logical connectives
which occur in it (most commonly: <and>, <or>, <not>,
<only if>, <if and only if>). The following fallacies
involve inferences whose correctness is not guaranteed by the behavior
of those logical connectives, and hence, which are not logically
guaranteed to yield true conclusions.
Types of Propositional fallacies:
 Quantification fallacies
A quantification fallacy is an error in logic where the quantifiers
of the premises are in contradiction to the quantifier of the
Types of Quantification fallacies:
 Formal syllogistic fallacies
Syllogistic fallacies – logical fallacies that occur in syllogisms.
 Informal fallacies
– arguments that are fallacious for reasons other than structural
(formal) flaws and which usually require examination of the argument's
- Argument from ignorance (appeal to ignorance, argumentum ad ignorantiam) – assuming that a claim is true (or false) because it has not been proven false (true) or cannot be proven false (true).
- Argument from (personal) incredulity (divine fallacy, appeal to
common sense) – I cannot imagine how this could be true, therefore it
must be false. 
- Argument from repetition (argumentum ad nauseam) – signifies that it has been discussed extensively until nobody cares to discuss it anymore.
- Argument from silence (argumentum e silentio) – where the conclusion is based on the absence of evidence, rather than the existence of evidence.
- Argumentum verbosium – See Proof by verbosity, below.
- Begging the question (petitio principii) – the failure to provide what is essentially the conclusion of an argument as a premise, if so required.
- (shifting the) Burden of proof (see – onus probandi) – I need not prove my claim, you must prove it is false.
- Circular reasoning – when the reasoner begins with what he or she is trying to end up with.
- Circular cause and consequence – where the consequence of the phenomenon is claimed to be its root cause.
- Continuum fallacy
(fallacy of the beard, line-drawing fallacy, sorites fallacy, fallacy
of the heap, bald man fallacy) – improperly rejecting a claim for being
- Correlation proves causation (cum hoc ergo propter hoc) – a faulty assumption that correlation between two variables implies that one causes the other.
- Correlative-based fallacies
- Equivocation – the misleading use of a term with more than one meaning (by glossing over which meaning is intended at a particular time).
- Ecological fallacy
– inferences about the nature of specific individuals are based solely
upon aggregate statistics collected for the group to which those
- Etymological fallacy
– which reasons that the original or historical meaning of a word or
phrase is necessarily similar to its actual present-day meaning.
- Fallacy of composition – assuming that something true of part of a whole must also be true of the whole.
- Fallacy of division – assuming that something true of a thing must also be true of all or some of its parts.
- False dilemma
(false dichotomy, fallacy of bifurcation, black-or-white fallacy) – two
alternative statements are held to be the only possible options, when
in reality there are more.
- If-by-whiskey – an argument that supports both sides of an issue by using terms that are selectively emotionally sensitive.
- Fallacy of many questions (complex question, fallacy of presupposition, loaded question, plurium interrogationum)
– someone asks a question that presupposes something that has not been
proven or accepted by all the people involved. This fallacy is often
used rhetorically, so that the question limits direct replies to those
that serve the questioner's agenda.
- Ludic fallacy
– the belief that the outcomes of a non-regulated random occurrences
can be encapsulated by a statistic; a failure to take into account unknown unknowns in determining the probability of an event's taking place.
- Fallacy of the single cause (causal oversimplification)
– it is assumed that there is one, simple cause of an outcome when in
reality it may have been caused by a number of only jointly sufficient
- False attribution – an advocate appeals to an irrelevant, unqualified, unidentified, biased or fabricated source in support of an argument.
- Fallacy of quoting out of context
(contextomy) – refers to the selective excerpting of words from their
original context in a way that distorts the source's intended meaning.
- Argument to moderation (false compromise, middle ground, fallacy of the mean) – assuming that the compromise between two positions is always correct.
- Gambler's fallacy
– the incorrect belief that separate, independent events can affect the
likelihood of another random event. If a coin flip lands on heads 10
times in a row, the belief that it is "due to land on tails" is
- Historian's fallacy
– occurs when one assumes that decision makers of the past viewed
events from the same perspective and having the same information as
those subsequently analyzing the decision. (Not to be confused with presentism, which is a mode of historical analysis in which present-day ideas, such as moral standards, are projected into the past.)
- Homunculus fallacy
– where a "middle-man" is used for explanation, this sometimes leads to
regressive middle-men. Explains without actually explaining the real
nature of a function or a process. Instead, it explains the concept in
terms of the concept itself, without first defining or explaining the
original concept. Explaining thought as something produced by a little
thinker, a sort of homunculus inside the head, merely explains it as
another kind of thinking (as different but the same).
- Inflation Of Conflict - The experts of a field of knowledge disagree
on a certain point, so the scholars must know nothing, and therefore
the legitimacy of their entire field is put to question. 
- Incomplete comparison – where not enough information is provided to make a complete comparison.
- Inconsistent comparison – where different methods of comparison are used, leaving one with a false impression of the whole comparison.
- Ignoratio elenchi
(irrelevant conclusion, missing the point) – an argument that may in
itself be valid, but does not address the issue in question.
- Kettle logic – using multiple inconsistent arguments to defend a position.
- Mind projection fallacy – when one considers the way he sees the world as the way the world really is.
- Moving the goalposts
(raising the bar) – argument in which evidence presented in response to
a specific claim is dismissed and some other (often greater) evidence
- Nirvana fallacy (perfect solution fallacy) – when solutions to problems are rejected because they are not perfect.
- Onus probandi
– from Latin "onus probandi incumbit ei qui dicit, non ei qui negat"
the burden of proof is on the person who makes the claim, not on the
person who denies (or questions the claim). It is a particular case of
the "argumentum ad ignorantiam" fallacy, here the burden is shifted on
the person defending against the assertion.
- Petitio principii – see begging the question.
- Post hoc ergo propter hoc
Latin for "after this, therefore because of this" (faulty cause/effect,
coincidental correlation, correlation without causation) – X happened
then Y happened; therefore X caused Y. Something tipped our boat over;
it's obviously the Loch Ness Monster
- Proof by verbosity (argumentum verbosium,
proof by intimidation) – submission of others to an argument too
complex and verbose to reasonably deal with in all its intimate details.
(See also Gish Gallop and argument from authority.)
- Prosecutor's fallacy – a low probability of false matches does not mean a low probability of some false match being found.
- Psychologist's fallacy – an observer presupposes the objectivity of his own perspective when analyzing a behavioral event.
- Red herring
– a speaker attempts to distract an audience by deviating from the
topic at hand by introducing a separate argument which the speaker
believes will be easier to speak to.
- Referential fallacy
- Regression fallacy
– ascribes cause where none exists. The flaw is failing to account for
natural fluctuations. It is frequently a special kind of the post hoc fallacy.
(hypostatization) – a fallacy of ambiguity, when an abstraction
(abstract belief or hypothetical construct) is treated as if it were a
concrete, real event or physical entity. In other words, it is the error
of treating as a "real thing" something which is not a real thing, but
merely an idea.
- Retrospective determinism – the argument that because some event has occurred, its occurrence must have been inevitable beforehand.
- Shotgun argumentation - the arguer offers such a large number of
arguments for their position that the opponent can't possibly respond to
all of them. (See "Argument by verbosity" and "Gish Gallop", above.)
- Special pleading
– where a proponent of a position attempts to cite something as an
exemption to a generally accepted rule or principle without justifying
- Wrong direction – cause and effect are reversed. The cause is said to be the effect and vice versa.
- Personal Attacks ("Argumentum ad Hominem")- the evasion of the actual topic by directing the attack at your opponent
- Hedging- using words with ambiguous meanings, then changing the meaning of them later
- False Authority- (single authority)- using an expert of dubious credentials and/or using only one opinion to sell a product or idea
 Faulty generalizations
– reach a conclusion from weak premises. Unlike fallacies of relevance,
in fallacies of defective induction, the premises are related to the
conclusions yet only weakly buttress the conclusions. A faulty
generalization is thus produced.
- Accident – an exception to a generalization is ignored.
- No true Scotsman – when a generalization is made true only when a counterexample is ruled out on shaky grounds.
- Cherry picking
(suppressed evidence, incomplete evidence) – act of pointing at
individual cases or data that seem to confirm a particular position,
while ignoring a significant portion of related cases or data that may
contradict that position.
- False analogy – an argument by analogy in which the analogy is poorly suited.
- Hasty generalization
(fallacy of insufficient statistics, fallacy of insufficient sample,
fallacy of the lonely fact, leaping to a conclusion, hasty induction, secundum quid, converse accident) – basing a broad conclusion on a small sample.
- Misleading vividness
– involves describing an occurrence in vivid detail, even if it is an
exceptional occurrence, to convince someone that it is a problem.
- Overwhelming exception
– an accurate generalization that comes with qualifications which
eliminate so many cases that what remains is much less impressive than
the initial statement might have led one to assume.
- Pathetic fallacy – when an inanimate object is declared to have characteristics of animate objects.
- Thought-terminating cliché – a commonly used phrase, sometimes passing as folk wisdom, used to quell cognitive dissonance, conceal lack of thought-entertainment, move onto other topics etc. but in any case, end the debate with a cliche—not a point.
 Red herring fallacies
A red herring fallacy is an error in logic where a proposition is, or
is intended to be, misleading in order to make irrelevant or false
inferences. In the general case any logical inference based on fake
arguments, intended to replace the lack of real arguments or to replace
implicitly the subject of the discussion.
Red herring – argument given in response to another argument, which is irrelevant and draws attention away from the subject of argument. See also irrelevant conclusion.
- Ad hominem – attacking the arguer instead of the argument.
- Poisoning the well – a type of ad hominem where adverse information about a target is presented with the intention of discrediting everything that the target person says
- Abusive fallacy – a subtype of "ad hominem" when it turns into name-calling rather than arguing about the originally proposed argument.
- Argumentum ad baculum
(appeal to the stick, appeal to force, appeal to threat) – an argument
made through coercion or threats of force to support position
- Argumentum ad populum
(appeal to widespread belief, bandwagon argument, appeal to the
majority, appeal to the people) – where a proposition is claimed to be
true or good solely because many people believe it to be so
- Appeal to equality – where an assertion is deemed true or false based on an assumed pretense of equality.
- Association fallacy (guilt by association) – arguing that because two things share a property they are the same
- Appeal to authority – where an assertion is deemed true because of the position or authority of the person asserting it.
- Appeal to consequences (argumentum ad consequentiam)
– the conclusion is supported by a premise that asserts positive or
negative consequences from some course of action in an attempt to
distract from the initial discussion
- Appeal to emotion – where an argument is made due to the manipulation of emotions, rather than the use of valid reasoning.
- Appeal to fear – a specific type of appeal to emotion where an argument is made by increasing fear and prejudice towards the opposing side
- Appeal to flattery – a specific type of appeal to emotion where an argument is made due to the use of flattery to gather support.
- Appeal to pity (argumentum ad misericordiam) – an argument attempts to induce pity to sway opponents
- Appeal to ridicule – an argument is made by presenting the opponent's argument in a way that makes it appear ridiculous
- Appeal to spite
– a specific type of appeal to emotion where an argument is made
through exploiting people's bitterness or spite towards an opposing
- Wishful thinking
– a specific type of appeal to emotion where a decision is made
according to what might be pleasing to imagine, rather than according to
evidence or reason.
- Appeal to motive – where a premise is dismissed by calling into question the motives of its proposer
- Appeal to novelty (argumentum ad novitam/antiquitam) – where a proposal is claimed to be superior or better solely because it is new or modern.
- Appeal to poverty (argumentum ad Lazarum) – supporting a conclusion because the arguer is poor (or refuting because the arguer is wealthy). (Opposite of appeal to wealth.)
- Appeal to tradition (argumentum ad antiquitam) – a conclusion supported solely because it has long been held to be true.
- Appeal to nature - wherein judgement is based solely on whether the subject of judgement is 'natural' or 'unnatural'. For example (hypothetical): "Cannabis is healthy because it is natural"
- Appeal to wealth (argumentum ad crumenam) – supporting a conclusion because the arguer is wealthy (or refuting because the arguer is poor). (Sometimes taken together with the appeal to poverty as a general appeal to the arguer's financial situation.)
- Appeal to worse problems – dismissing an argument due to the existence of more important, but unrelated, problems in the world
- Argument from silence (argumentum ex silentio) – a conclusion based on silence or lack of contrary evidence
(Psychogenetic Fallacy) - inferring why an argument is being used,
associating it to some psychological reason, then assuming it is invalid
as a result. It is wrong to assume that if the origin of an idea comes
from a biased mind, then the idea itself must also be a false. 
- Chronological snobbery – where a thesis is deemed incorrect because it was commonly held when something else, clearly false, was also commonly held
- Genetic fallacy – where a conclusion is suggested based solely on something or someone's origin rather than its current meaning or context.
- Judgmental language – insulting or pejorative language to influence the recipient's judgment
- Naturalistic fallacy (is–ought fallacy, naturalistic fallacy) – claims about what ought to be on the basis of statements about what is.
- Reductio ad Hitlerum
(playing the Nazi card) – comparing an opponent or their argument to
Hitler or Nazism in an attempt to associate a position with one that is
universally reviled (See also – Godwin's law)
- Straw man – an argument based on misrepresentation of an opponent's position
- Texas sharpshooter fallacy – improperly asserting a cause to explain a cluster of data
- Tu quoque
("you too", appeal to hypocrisy, I'm rubber and you're glue) – the
argument states that a certain position is false or wrong and/or should
be disregarded because its proponent fails to act consistently in
accordance with that position
- Two wrongs make a right – occurs when it is assumed that if one wrong is committed, another wrong will cancel it out.
 Conditional or questionable fallacies
- Broken window fallacy
– an argument which disregards lost opportunity costs (typically
non-obvious, difficult to determine or otherwise hidden) associated with
destroying property of others, or other ways of externalizing costs
onto others. For example, an argument that states breaking a window
generates income for a window fitter, but disregards the fact that the
money spent on the new window cannot now be spent on new shoes.
- Definist fallacy – involves the confusion between two notions by defining one in terms of the other.
- Naturalistic fallacy
– attempts to prove a claim about ethics by appealing to a definition
of the term "good" in terms of either one or more claims about natural
properties (sometimes also taken to mean the appeal to nature) or God's will.
- Slippery slope (thin edge of the wedge, camel's nose)
– asserting that a relatively small first step inevitably leads to a
chain of related events culminating in some significant impact/event
that should not happen, thus the first step should not happen. While
this fallacy is a popular one, it is, in its essence, an appeal to
probability fallacy. (e.g if person x does y then z would (probably)
occur, leading to q, leading to w, leading to e.)
 See also
- Bunnin, Nicholas; Yu, Jiyuan, eds. (2004). The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0679-5.
- Clark, Jef; Clark, Theo (2005). Humbug! The Skeptic's Field Guide to Spotting Fallacies in Thinking. Nifty Books. ISBN 0-646-44477-8. Also available as an ebook.
- Copi, Irving M.; Cohen, Carl (1990). Introduction to Logic (8th ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-02-325035-4.
- Curtis, Gary N. Logical Fallacies: The Fallacy Files. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Damer, T. Edward (2009). Attacking Faulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to Fallacy-free Arguments (6th ed.). Wadsworth. ISBN 978-0-495-09506-4. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
- Dowden, Bradley (December 31, 2010). "Fallacy". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002 http://www.iep.utm.edu/ . Retrieved 2011-04-22.
- Fischer, David Hackett (1970). Historians' Fallacies: Toward a Logic of Historical Thought. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-131545-9.
- Flew, Antony (1984). A Dictionary of Philosophy. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-20923-0.
- Gula, Robert J. (2002). Nonsense: Red Herrings, Straw Men and Sacred Cows: How We Abuse Logic in Our Everyday Language. Axios Press. ISBN 978-0-9753662-6-4.
- Hurley, Patrick J. (2007). A Concise Introduction to Logic (10th ed.). Cengage. ISBN 978-0-495-50383-5.
- Johnson, Ralph H.; Blair, J. Anthony (1994). Logical Self-Defense. IDEA. ISBN 978-1-932716-18-4.
- Pirie, Madsen (2006). How to Win Every Argument: The Use and Abuse of Logic. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-9006-9.
- Wilson, W. Kent (1999). "Formal fallacy". In Audi, Robert. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 316–317. ISBN 978-0-511-07417-2.
- Walton, Douglas (1997). Appeal to Expert Opinion: Arguments from Authority. Pennsylvania State University. ISBN 0-271-01694-9 Paperback ISBN 0-271-01695-7
- Walton, Douglas (2008). Informal Logic: A Pragmatic Approach (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-511-40878-6.
 Further reading
The following is a sample of books for further reading, selected for a
combination of content, ease of access via the internet, and to provide
an indication of published sources that interested readers may review.
The titles of some books are self-explanatory. Good books on critical
thinking commonly contain sections on fallacies, and some may be listed
 External links