View Graphs for CIS 679
Set One
Prof. Murray Turoff

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CONTENTS


  1. Management Enviroment
  2. Management Function
  3. Foundation Enviroment
  4. Infomation Systems
  5. Historical IS Background
  6. Computer Mediated Communications
  7. Remote Work
  8. Readings
  9. Miscellaneous


MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENT View Graphs

* (c) Copyright 1992 Murray Turoff

MANAGEMENT OF I.S. WISDOM

* SCUBA DIVING

* 80% OF THE TRAINING IS WHAT TO DO WHEN SOMETHING GOES WRONG.

* COMPUTER SYSTEMS

* 80% OF BEING AN I.S. MANAGER IS KNOWING WHAT CAN GO WRONG AND HOW TO AVOID IT OR COPE WITH IT.

MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS 1

* NEW GENERATION 3-5 YEARS
* HIGHLY SKILLED PEOPLE

* SHORT SUPPLY
* HIGHLY PRICED
* TOO SPECIALIZED
* TOO MANY UNSKILLED

* RAPID COST CHANGES

* RELATIVE BASES
* DECLINING

MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS 2

* SHIFTING APPLICATIONS

* CLERICAL AUTOMATION
* OFFICE AUTOMATION
* MANAGEMENT INFORMATION
* DECISION SUPPORT
* STRATEGIC RELEVANCE

* FOREIGN VOCABULARY TO USERS

* MIS, GDSS, AI, VR, EXPERT SYSTEMS

* CHANGING MANAGEMENT WISDOM

MANAGEMENT ISSUES FOR I.S.

* MIS QUARTERLY, DECEMBER 1991
* DELPHI STUDY
* EVERY FOUR YEARS
* I.S. EXECUTIVES
* 175 OUT OF 241 PARTICIPATED

RANK ORDER OF ISSUES 1

* DEVELOPING INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
* EFFECTIVE USE OF DATA RESOURCE
* IMPROVING I.S. STRATEGIC PLANNING
* SPECIFYING, RECRUITING, AND DEVELOPING I.S. HUMAN RESOURCES
* FACILITATING ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING AND USE OF I.S. TECHNOLOGIES
* BUILDING A RESPONSIVE IT INFRASTRUCTURE
* ALIGNING THE I.S. ORGANIZATION WITH THAT OF THE ENTERPRISE

RANK ORDER OF ISSUES 2

* USING INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
* IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
* PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING A TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS
* INCREASING UNDERSTANDING OF ROLE AND CONTRIBUTION OF I.S..
* ENABLING MULTI-VENDOR DATA INTERCHANGE AND INTEGRATION
* DEVELOPING AND MANAGING DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS

RANK ORDER OF ISSUES 3

* PLANNING & USING CASE TECHNOLOGY
* PLANNING AND MANAGING THE APPLICATIONS PORTFOLIO
* MEASURING THE I.S. EFFECTIVENESS AND PRODUCTIVITY
* FACILITATING AND MANAGING DECISION AND EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEM
* FACILITATING AND MANAGING END-USER COMPUTING
* IMPROVING INFORMATION SECURITY AND CONTROL
* ESTABLISHING EFFECTIVE DISASTER RECOVERIES CAPABILITIES

1. DATA RESOURCES

* INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
* DATA RESOURCE

2. COMMUNICATION RESOURCES

* TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS
* ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE
* DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
* GLOBAL SYSTEMS

3. DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT

* I.S. HUMAN RESOURCES
* SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
* CASE TECHNOLOGY

4. PLANNING

* I.S. ROLE AND CONTRIBUTION
* STRATEGIC PLANNING
* I.S. ORGANIZATION ALIGNMENT
* I.S. ASSET ACCOUNTING
* I.S. EFFECTIVENESS MEASUREMENT

5. APPLICATIONS MANAGEMENT

* APPLICATIONS PORTFOLIO
* ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
* COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
* END-USER COMPUTING
* EXECUTIVE/DECISION SUPPORT

6. COST CONTROL

* SECURITY AND CONTROL
* DISASTER RECOVERY

7. TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT

* TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE
* IMAGE TECHNOLOGY
* TECHNOLOGY ISLANDS

MAJOR CONSTANT MANAGEMENT CONCERNS

* APPLICATIONS MANAGEMENT
* TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT
* DEVELOPMENT MANAGEMENT
* PLANNING
* COST CONTROL
* DATA RESOURCES
* COMMUNICATION RESOURCES

GO TO START

MANAGEMENT FUNCTION View Graphs

* (c) Copyright 1992 Murray Turoff

MAJOR MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

* SURVEILLANCE
* EVALUATION
* PLANNING
* FORECASTING & ASSESSMENT
* POLICY FORMULATION & ANALYSES
* DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION
* MAINTENANCE & OPERATIONS
* GENERAL MANAGEMENT

SURVEILLANCE 1

* TECHNOLOGY

* MICROS
* MINIS
* MAINFRAMES
* DEDICATED SYSTEMS
* NETWORKS
* DBMS
* GRAPHICS & CAD/CAM
* NEW LANGUAGES
* NEW INTERFACES
* CASE SYSTEMS
* CLIENT/SERVER SYSTEMS

SURVEILLANCE 2

* APPLICATIONS

* OFFICE AUTOMATION
* MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS
* INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
* DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
* COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATIONS
* MIS, IMS, DSS, CMC

SURVEILLANCE 3

* APPLICATIONS

* PROCESS CONTROL
* EXPERT SYSTEMS
* HYPERTEXT & MULTIMEDIA
* TRANSACTION SYSTEMS
* TEXT PROCESSING

SURVEILLANCE 4

* PUBLIC

* ACCESS
* LITERACY
* INFORMATION RIGHTS

* COMPLEXITY & CONTROL OF SYSTEMS

* FBI, IRS, CENSUS
* EFT, SOCIAL SECURITY
* CREDIT SYSTEMS
* CAN WE BUILD A SYSTEM WE CAN'T CONTROL??

SURVEILLANCE 5

* EDUCATION & TRAINING
* SYSTEM ACCREDITATION
* USER SELF IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES
* COMPUTER & INFORMATION INDUSTRY
* INDUSTRIAL V/S GOVERNMENTAL PRACTICES

EVALUATION 1

* USER

* IDENTIFICATION
* REQUIREMENTS
* SATISFACTION

* COSTS

* ALLOCATION
* DETERMINATION
* NON LINEAR RELATIONSHIPS

EVALUATION 2

* ORGANIZATION

* EFFICIENCY
* EFFECTIVENESS
* STRATEGIC RELEVANCE
* GOALS & OBJECTIVES
* LEARNING
* STRUCTURE
* POWER AND AUTHORITY
* CULTURE

EVALUATION 3

* INFORMATION

* FLOW IDENTIFICATION
* VALUE DETERMINATION
* COST DETERMINATION
* LIFE CYCLES
* RELATING TO MISSION EFFECTIVENESS

* EVOLUTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

EVALUATION 4

* EVOLUTION OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR
* DEPENDENCY
* ACCOUNTABILITY
* CRISIS MANAGEMENT ABILITY
* PUBLIC SERVICES DELIVERY
* SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
* USER AND MANAGEMENT INVOLVEMENT

PLANNING

* I.S. AND ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES
* LONG RANGE APPROACHES
* MEASURES OF PLANNING EFFECTIVENESS
* SYSTEM OBSOLESCENCE
* SYSTEM EVOLUTION
* ACQUISITIONS

* HARDWARE
* SOFTWARE
* CONTRACTING
* UNIFORM PROCUREMENT

* SYSTEMS INTERCONNECTION
* MANPOWER NEEDS

FORECASTING & ASSESSMENT 1

* HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE PERFORMANCE
* VENDOR OFFERINGS
* NETWORKS
* REGULATION AND LIABILITY
* APPLICATIONS

FORECASTING & ASSESSMENT 2

* INDUSTRY CHANGE & OVERLAP

* COMPUTER & COMMUNICATIONS
* PUBLISHING
* FINANCIAL
* RETAIL
* ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER
* ELECTRONIC YELLOW PAGES
* ELECTRONIC MARKETPLACES
* COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATIONS
* VIDEO TEXT LIKE SYSTEMS

FORECASTING & ASSESSMENT 3

* COMPUTER CRIME
* EXPORTS & IMPORTS
* EMPLOYMENT DEMANDS
* TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE
* COMPUTER LITERACY AND TRAINING

* PUBLIC
* MANAGEMENT
* PROFESSIONAL

* VENDOR EVALUATION

FORECASTING & ASSESSMENT 4

* ELECTRONIC MARKETPLACE

* ADVERTISE SALE: PUBLISHERS
* NEGOTIATE: COMMUNICATIONS
* TRANSACT: BANKING
* FINANCIAL: ACCOUNTING

POLICY FORMULATION & ANALYSES 1

* STANDARDS

* FORECASTING
* DETERMINATION
* ENFORCEMENT

* PRIVACY & INFORMATION RIGHTS

* TRACKING & MONITORING
* DETECTION OF VALUES
* VALUE IN A NAME

* PAPERWORK REDUCTION

POLICY FORMULATION & ANALYSES 2

* DATABASE QUALITY AND DUPLICATION
* RECORDS AND PERFORMANCE COMPLIANCE
* LIABILITY
* OWNERSHIP

* COPYRIGHTS & PATENTS
* PROTECTIONISM
* PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
* COLLABORATIVE DOCUMENTS

* REMOTE WORK
* IMPACT OF METAPHORS

* e.g., PUBLISH OR COMMUNICATE

POLICY FORMULATION & ANALYSES 3

* TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
* PUBLIC ACCESS TO INFORMATION SYSTEMS
* SUNSET REVIEW OF SYSTEMS
* TOP MANAGEMENT INVOLVEMENT
* MANAGEMENT OBSOLESCENCE
* PROFESSIONAL OBSOLESCENCE
* ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
* CENTRALIZED VS. DECENTRALIZED
* END USER COMPUTING
* STEERING COMMITTEES

POLICY FORMULATION & ANALYSES 3

* ACQUISITION POLICIES

* MAKE OR BUY
* LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS

* ZBB ANALYSIS
* SUNSET ANALYSIS
* STRATEGIC RELEVANCE
* LABOUR & JOB IMPACTS
* PRODUCTIVITY

DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION 1

* USERS

* INVOLVEMENT
* EXPECTATIONS
* PRODUCTIVITY
* ACCEPTANCE

* PROTOTYPING SYSTEMS
* EVOLUTIONARY & MODULAR APPROACHES

DEVELOPMENT & IMPLEMENTATION 2

* ESTIMATIONS & OVERRUNS
* PROGRAMMING PRODUCTIVITY
* REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION
* VALIDATION & VERIFICATION
* CONVERSION
* AUDITING
* OFF THE SHELVE SOFTWARE
* ROLE OF RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

MAINTENANCE & OPERATIONS 1

* SOFTWARE PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT
* STRUCTURED DESIGN & PROGRAMMING
* BENCHMARKS
* QUALITY & DATA ASSURANCE
* SECURITY & DISASTER RECOVERY
* RELIABILITY

MAINTENANCE & OPERATIONS 2

* OBSOLESCENCE DETECTION
* SATURATION DETECTION
* CONVERSION
* AUDITING
* SERVICES CONTRACTING
* SYSTEM ACCEPTANCE TESTING
* OPERATIONAL USER FEEDBACK

MANAGEMENT 1

* PERSONNEL

* JOB CLASSIFICATION
* PAY
* MORAL
* CERTIFICATION
* CAREER LADDERS
* TRAINING & CONTINUING EDUCATION
* ADEQUACY & DEMAND
* TURNOVER
* UNIONIZATION

* DECENTRALIZATION
* LIFE CYCLE COSTING

MANAGEMENT 2

* PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT
* SOFTWARE ENGINEERING & STANDARDS
* INTERFACE SYSTEMS DESIGN & STANDARD
* PROGRAMMING SUPPORT TECHNOLOGY
* MULTIPLE VENDOR SYSTEMS
* MANAGEMENT

* SPAN
* EFFECTIVENESS
* ACCOUNTABILITY
* CONTROL STRUCTURES
* REVIEW

GO TO START


FOUNDATION ENVIRONMENT View Graphs

* (c) Copyright 1992 Murray Turoff

CLASSIFICATION SUMMARY

* METHOD OF EVIDENCE GENERATION
* PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPE
* CLASS OF PROBLEM
* ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT
* INDIVIDUAL STYLES
* PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES AND DIMENSIONS
* ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES
* ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND GOALS
* INFORMATION VALUE AND UTILITY
* MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVE
* OTHER SIGNIFICANT FACTORS

METHOD OF EVIDENCE GENERATION

* LEIBNITZIAN
* LOCKEAN
* KANTIAN
* HEGELIAN
* SINGARIAN
* REALITY CONSTRUCTION

LEIBNITIZIAN INQUIRY

* TRUTH IN STRUCTURE OF MODEL
* INDEPENDENT OF DATA
* DEDUCTIVE IN NATURE

LOCKEAN INQUIRY

* TRUTH IN THE DATA
* CONSENSUS TRUTH
* DEDUCTIVE TRUTH
* INDEPENDENT OF MODEL

KANTIAN INQUIRY

* TRUTH RELATIVE
* DIFFERENT INQUIRIES
* BEST UTILIZES DATA
* BEST SERVES OBJECTIVES

HEGELIAN INQUIRY

* TRUTH CONFLICTUAL
* BEST INQUIRY TO SUPPORT OPPOSING ALTERNATIVES

SINGARIAN INQUIRY

* TRUTH PRAGMATIC
* EXAMINE HISTORY AND OBJECTIVES
* FEEDBACK TO FORMULATION OF INQUIRY

REALITY CONSTRUCTION

* TRUTH VIRTUAL
* TRIBE NEGOTIATES TRUTH
* RELIGIOUS TRUTHS

PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES AND DIMENSIONS

* THINKING
* FEELING
* SENSATION
* INTUITION
* OTHER DIMENSIONS

* DOGMATISM
* LOCUS OF CONTROL
* EXTROVERSION/INTROVERSION
* ABSTRACTION
* STRATEGY SEARCH

MYERS-BRIGGS PERSONALITY TYPES

* JUDGING/PERCEIVING

* JUDGING

* MAKES DECISIONS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE
* JUDGING TYPE LOOKS FOR GOALS

* PERCEIVING

* PUTS IT OFF UNTIL ALL INFORMATION IN
* INTERESTED IN PROCESS

MYERS-BRIGGS PERSONALITY TYPES

* SENSING/INTUITING

* SENSING

* RELY ON EXTERNAL STIMULI
* NEED TO INTERACT
* WANTS EVERYTHING EXPLICIT

* INTUITING

* MAKE DECISIONS WITHOUT EXTERNAL STIMULI
* LIKE TO SEND WORK TO BE BATCHED
* LIKES TO USE IMAGINATION

MYERS-BRIGGS PERSONALITY TYPES

* THINKING/FEELING

* THINKING

* NEEDS EXPLICIT LOGIC FOR DOING SOMETHING
* READS HELPS AND DOCUMENTATION BEFORE DOING

* FEELING

* USE INTUITION
* MORE INCLINED TO TRIAL AND ERROR

CLASS OF PROBLEMS 1

* PROGRAMMED
* STRUCTURED

* DECISIONS UNDER CERTAINTY
* DECISIONS UNDER RISK
* DECISIONS UNDER UNCERTAINTY

* SEMI-STRUCTURED

* MUCH SUBJECTIVE DATA

CLASS OF PROBLEMS 2

* UNSTRUCTURED

* CONFLICTS
* UNKNOWN RELATIONSHIPS

* WICKED

* VALUE DIFFERENCES
* UNKS UNKS

ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT 1

* STRATEGIC AND/OR EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENT

* OBJECT AND GOAL SETTING

* MANAGEMENT PLANNING

* RESOURCE DETERMINATION
* RESOURCE ALLOCATION

ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT 2

* MANAGEMENT CONTROL, TACTICAL MANAGEMENT

* PRIORITY SETTING
* TASK ASSIGNMENT
* RESOURCE UTILIZATION

* OPERATIONAL CONTROL, ADMINISTRATIVE

* LINE DECISIONS
* TASK ACCOMPLISHMENT
* MONITORING

INDIVIDUAL STYLES

* ANALYTICAL
* REALISTS
* IDEALISTS
* PRAGMATISTS
* CONSENSUAL
* CONFLICTUAL

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES

* TRADITIONAL
* BUREAUCRATIC
* HUMAN
* SYSTEM
* NETWORKED (?)
* MARKETPLACE (?)

TRADITIONAL

* FEUDALISM
* AUTHORITY AND LOYALTY
* TOP DOWN DECISION MAKING
* PEOPLE GOOD OR BAD, NO IN-BETWEEN
* HIERARCHY ABSOLUTE
* NO INFORMAL STRUCTURE

BUREAUCRATIC

* RULES AND PROCEDURES
* NO HUMAN AUTHORITY
* HIERARCHY RATIONALIZED
* THEORY X VIEW OF PEOPLE
* EFFICIENCY
* INFORMAL STRUCTURE TOLERATED

HUMAN

* INFORMATION IS POWER
* BASED UPON GROUPS
* MORE DECENTRALIZATION
* THEORY Y VIEW OF PEOPLE
* INFORMAL STRUCTURE IMPORTANT
* INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCES

SYSTEM

* GOAL AND OBJECTIVE ORIENTED
* PEOPLE INFLUENCE BY ENVIRONMENT
* INFORMATION FLOW
* PROCESS UNDERSTANDING
* OPEN SYSTEM VIEW
* FEEDBACK THEORY

NETWORKED

* DECENTRALIZED
* INDEPENDENT VALUE CENTERS
* ACCOUNTABILITY
* ORGANIZATIONAL UNIT
* THEORY Y AND Z OF PEOPLE
* DISPERSED GEOGRAPHICAL TEAMS

MARKETPLACE

* DECENTRALIZED
* CONTRACTUAL TASKS
* EARNINGS DETERMINE MANAGEMENT
* FREE ENTERPRISE INCENTIVES
* PEOPLE AS ECONOMIC ENTITIES
* KNOWLEDGE BASED

ORGANIZATIONAL COORDINATION

* PARALLEL
* POOLED
* CONCURRENT
* SEQUENTIAL
* REACTIVE

ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES & GOALS

* MATERIAL RESOURCES
* COST MINIMIZING
* PERFORMANCE MAXIMIZING
* SALES MAXIMIZING
* SERVICES
* PHYSICAL
* MENTAL

ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES & GOALS

* SOCIAL BETTERMENT
* CAPITAL GOODS
* DISTRIBUTION
* FINANCE
* INFORMATION
* PROTECTION
* ADMINISTRATION

INFORMATION VALUE AND UTILITY

* CLASSICAL SCHOOL

* INHERENT IN CONTENT
* INFORMATION CODING

* BEHAVIOURAL SCHOOL

* DIFFERS FROM RECEIVER TO SENDER
* TRANSACTIONAL UNDERSTANDING
* DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

* DECISION THEORY SCHOOL

* VALUE RELATIVE TO ENVIRONMENT
* OPPORTUNITY COSTS & REGRET

MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES

* INDIVIDUAL VIEW

* ACTORS, STAKEHOLDERS

* ORGANIZATIONAL VIEW

* TASKS, OBJECTIVES, GOALS

* TECHNOLOGICAL VIEW

* SOCIAL, SCIENTIFIC, ENGINEERING

OTHER SIGNIFICANT FACTORS

* THEORY X, Y, OR Z
* QUANTITATIVE OR QUALITATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
* CENTRALIZED OR DECENTRALIZED CONTROL
* EXTRAPOLATIVE OR NORMATIVE ANALYSES
* EFFECTIVENESS AND/OR EFFICIENCY
* POWER AND AUTHORITY
* INDIVIDUAL OR ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS

GO TO START


INFORMATION SYSTEMS View Graphs

* (c) Copyright 1992 Murray Turoff

NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF COMPUTERS 1

* JOB DISPLACEMENT
* JOB DESKILLING
* INCREASED SPECIALIZATION

* DECREASE MOBILITY

* DECREASED AUTHORITY
* INCREASED CENTRALIZATION
* RIGIDITY (LACK OF RESILIENCY)
* SCAPEGOATING

NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF COMPUTERS 2

* EFFICIENCY RATHER THAN EFFECTIVENESS
* ENDS RATHER THAN MEANS
* UNANTICIPATED CONSEQUENCES

* INVENTORY & MESSAGE SYSTEMS

* OVER STRUCTURING AND OVER QUALIFYING
* OVER EXPECTATION
* PRIVACY, MONITORING AND MORAL
* NOT MEANT FOR MORTALS, GODHOOD

NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF COMPUTERS 3

* ESCAPE (DRUNKARD'S PARADOX)
* CREATING TEMPLATES (PRESCRIPTIVE)
* SUBSTITUTION OF UNREAL FOR REAL
* SUB-OPTIMIZATION
* PRIOR BAD DECISIONS & EXPERIENCES
* STATUS SYMBOLS
* UNFRIENDLY
* COLD

TYPICAL CONFLICTS IN I.S.

* CENTRALIZATION OR DECENTRALIZATION
* PRESCRIPTIVE OR DESCRIPTIVE
* EFFECTIVENESS OR EFFICIENCY
* PROCESS OR GOALS
* QUALITATIVE OR QUANTITATIVE
* SPECIALIZATION OR GENERALIZATION
* EXTRAPOLATIVE OR NORMATIVE
* IMS or MIS
* MIS or DSS

PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS

* IBM & BALTIMORE SCHOOL SYSTEM
* 2.9 MILLION FOR PC's & SOFTWARE
* IF AFTER 2 YEARS:

* FIRST GRADERS MEET NATIONAL AVERAGE READING SCORES
* IBM GETS PAYMENT
* IF NOT SALE NEGATED

CENTRALIZATION PROPERTIES 1

* OVERHEAD MORE OBVIOUS

* DISTRIBUTE TO USERS

* SUBSIDIZE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
* SUBSIDIZE TECHNOLOGY ACQUISITION
* SHARE EXPENSIVE RESOURCES

* PEOPLE, SOFTWARE
* EQUIPMENT, NETWORK
* DATA MODELS

CENTRALIZATION PROPERTIES 2

* MORE TALENT & SOPHISTICATION
* VULNERABLE TO BUDGET LIMITS
* CONCENTRATE AUTHORITY & ACCOUNTABILITY
* MAINTAINING STANDARDS & GUIDELINES
* JOB SECURITY AND ADVANCEMENT
* RECOGNITION OF NEED FOR INNOVATION
* COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS WITH USERS
* CONFLICTING OBJECTIVES WITH USERS

STATISTICAL STUDY

* HUNDRED OF COMPANIES
* 20 YEARS
* FOR SAME INDUSTRY

* LOW PROFITABILITY COMPANIES

* HIGH INVESTMENT IN COMPUTERS
* LOWER PROFITABILITY

* HIGH PROFITABLITY COMPANIES

* HIGH INVESTMENT IN COMPUTERS
* HIGHER PROFITABILITY

* SOLVE PEOPLE PROBLEMS FIRST
* CONTRARY TO VENDOR TACTICS

SUCCESSFUL I.S. POLICIES 1

* LINK I.S. WITH BUSINESS STRATEGY
* VISIBLE & ACTIVE SUPPORT FROM SENIOR MANAGEMENT
* CHANGE CULTURE & STRUCTURE OF ORGANIZATION
* INVEST IN PEOPLE AND THEIR DEVELOPMENTS

SUCCESSFUL I.S. POLICIES 2

* DISCIPLINED PROJECT MANAGEMENT & ACCOUNTABILITY
* MULTI DISCIPLINARY DESIGN TEAMS
* SOUND METHODS FOR MONITORING AND REVIEWING PROGRESS
* EMPHASIS ON SPREADING BENEFITS THROUGH ORGANIZATION
* UNIFORM METHODS FOR REVIEW & EVALUATION

COUNTER PRODUCTIVE EFFECTS

* INVASION OF PERSONAL PRIVACY
* MONITORING OF WORK.

* USUALLY DRUNKER'S PARADOX
* QUALITY NOT QUANTITY

* ERGONOMICS IGNORED
* TRAINING AND GUIDANCE IGNORED

FARMER'S HORSE & TRACTOR METHOD 1

* NEW TRACTOR: $50,000

* 450 HP FOR 10,000 HOURS
* RUNNING COST $20/HOUR

* HORSE : $2000

* RUNNING COST $1/HOURS

* PRODUCTIVITY RATIO: 450:1
* TRACTOR IS WORTH:

* 449 HP x 2,000 HORSES = $898,000

FARMER'S HORSE & TRACTOR METHOD 2

* OPERATING ADVANTAGE:

* 450 HORSES x 10,000 HOURS x $1/HOUR MINUS
* 10,000 HOURS z $20/HOUR EQUAL $4,300,000

* TOTAL: $5,198,000 GAIN FOR ONLY $50,000

* WHEN CAN YOU DEPOSIT THE FIVE MILLION TO PAY OFF THE LOAN.
* NOTE LACK OF RELATIONSHIP TO SIZE AND NATURE OF FARM

* CORRECT VIEW:

* VALUE OF COMPUTER IS WHAT YOU ARE WILLING TO PAY FOR THE RESULTS.

I.S. OBSERVATIONS

* I.S. SUBJECT TO OVERALL SITUATION

* PROFITS, PLANS, ATMOSPHERE
* CULTURE, MANAGEMENT STYLE, MORAL

* NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN I.S. INVESTMENT AND BUSINESS SUCCESS
* NO EASY, STANDARD WAY TO MEASURE PAYOFF OF I.S.
* EASY TO MANIPULATE RESULTS OF I.S.
* I.S. COSTS MIGRATE TO HIDDEN AREAS

COST OF WORKSTATION EXAMPLE

* HARDWARE COST $10,000
* TOTAL YEARLY COST $23,500
* 4 YEAR LIFE 10.3%
* TIME TO LEARN 27.4% *
* INFO SUPPORT FROM OTHERS 18.3% *
* SOFTWARE 7.6%
* FORMAL TRAINING 5.3%
* MAINFRAME USE 1.5%
* CORPORATE SUPPORT 29.7% *
* 75% MAY BE HIDDEN COST

HISTORICAL CYCLE 1

* NEW TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT
* ENCOURAGE APPLICATIONS
* EFFECTIVE EMPHASIS
* COST GROWTH
* POWER ACQUISITION

* FIRE CIO

HISTORICAL CYCLE 2

* COST CONTROL
* EFFICIENCY APPROACH
* INHIBIT INNOVATION
* LIMIT NEW APPLICATIONS/TECHNOLOGY
* LOSS OF COMPETITIVE EDGE

* FIRE CIO

* PRAGMATIC VIEW OF MANAGEMENT

* NO EXCUSE

GO TO START


HISTORICAL I.S. BACKGROUND View Graphs

* (c) Copyright 1992 Murray Turoff

EARLY I.S. IMAGES

* PRIEST & WISDOM
* RITUAL & LANGUAGE
* SHRINES & TEMPLES
* CURES & SALVATION
* OMNIPOTENT
* BEYOND MORTAL UNDERSTANDING

COMPUTER SYSTEM FALLACIES

* USAGE AS ACCEPTANCE
* AUTOMATION
* BLACK BOXING
* CENTRALIZATION
* PERFORMANCE MAXIMIZATION
* COST MINIMIZATION
* EFFICIENCY
* REDUCTIONISM
* SCIENTIFIC & LOGICAL

SOME INTERESTING FORECASTS

* 1953 IBM ESTIMATES MARKET FOR ONLY 50 COMPUTERS IN US.
* 1969 GE MANAGEMENT CLAIMS BASIC I.S. USELESS
* 1975 HP REJECTS IDEA OF APPLE
* 1979 TANDY EXPECTS TO SELL ONLY 4,000 COMPUTERS

COMMON FALLACIES

* WHAT THE COMPUTER SAYS IS ALWAYS TRUE

* GARBAGE IN I.S. GARBAGE OUT

* THE COMPUTER IS TOO COMPLICATED TO UNDERSTAND
* WE ARE ONLY AUTOMATING WHAT YOU ARE DOING NOW
* WE CANNOT CHANGE THE WAY THE COMPUTER DOES IT
* IT IS THE COMPUTERS FAULT NOT OURS

I.S. PRIOR DETERMINANTS

* STRUCTURED TASKS
* HANDLING "NECESSARY" DATA
* COST MINIMIZING
* EXPENSIVE HARDWARE
* AUTOMATING
* ORGANIZATIONAL FUNCTIONS

I.S. NEW DETERMINANTS

* EXPENSIVE PEOPLE
* PERFORMANCE MAXIMIZATION
* NEW USES
* HANDLING "VALUE" DATA
* INDIVIDUAL FUNCTIONS
* UNSTRUCTURED TASKS
* COMMUNICATIONS

DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING

* HIGHER COSTS:

* HARDWARE
* DP PERSONAL
* SOFTWARE

* LOWER COSTS:

* COMMUNICATIONS
* USERS

EQUIVALENT COMPUTER COSTS

* Year Dollars
* 1955 10,000,000
* 1965 1,000,000
* 1975 100,000
* 1985 10,000
* 1995 1,000

INCREASED END USER COMPUTING

* 1960 1 - 3 %
* 1970 5 - 7 %
* 1980 15 - 20 %
* 1985 45 - 50 %
* 1990 50 - 75 %

KNOWLEDGE AREAS RELATED TO I.S. 1

* COMPUTER SCIENCE
* INFORMATION SCIENCE
* MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
* OPERATIONS RESEARCH
* INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
* COMMUNICATION SCIENCE
* ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

KNOWLEDGE AREAS RELATED TO I.S. 2

* ECONOMICS
* PSYCHOLOGY
* SOCIOLOGY
* ANTHROPOLOGY
* CYBERNETICS
* SYSTEMS SCIENCE
* SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
* MATHEMATICS

WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE:

* WORK IN A HOME OFFICE
* ROBOTS TO DO HOUSEWORK
* ROBOTS TO ELIMINATE ASSEMBLY LINE JOBS
* TAKE A COLLEGE COURSE THROUGH A TERMINAL
* HAVING A COMPUTER DIAGNOSE YOUR ILLNESS


IMPRESSIONS OF COMPUTERS

* SMART STUPID
* FRIENDLY UNFRIENDLY
* FORGIVING UNFORGIVING
* CONTROLLED UNCONTROLLED
* EASY TO USE HARD TO USE
* EASY TO CHANGE HARD TO CHANGE

ATMOSPHERE

* HUMAN COMPUTER

* SLOW RAPID
* SLOPPY RIGOROUS
* FORGETFUL PRECISE
* BRILLIANT STUPID


* HOW TO DESIGN A COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE TWO?

INDUSTRY SHIFTS 1

* INFORMATION & PUBLISHING GOING ELECTRONIC
* COMPUTERS DOING & OFFERING COMMUNICATIONS
* COMMUNICATIONS & BROADCASTING OFFERING COMPUTER & INFORMATION SERVICES
* FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OFFERING COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION SERVICE

INDUSTRY SHIFTS 2

* COMMUNICATIONS OFFERING FINANCIAL SERVICES
* EDUCATION INCREASINGLY OFFERED BY INDUSTRY
* LINES BETWEEN INFORMATION, PUBLISHING, COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, BROADCASTING, FINANCE AND EDUCATION BECOMING INCREASINGLY BLURRED

LINES BLURRING BETWEEN

* INFORMATION
* PUBLISHING
* COMPUTERS
* COMMUNICATIONS
* BROADCASTING
* FINANCE
* EDUCATION

ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER 1

* OFFER OPPORTUNITIES
* CLASSIFIED ADS

* NEWSPAPERS
* BROADCASTERS
* PUBLISHERS

* NEGOTIATE EXCHANGES
* COMMUNICATIONS

* PHONE COMPANIES
* MAILS

* CONTRACT & LIABILITY

* LEGAL SERVICES

ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER 2

* CLEAR FUNDS

* BANKING

* TAX ANALYSIS
* ACCOUNTING

* CPA FIRMS

* REGULATORY FACTORS:

* FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD
* FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
* CONGRESS, STATE LEGISLATOR
* STATE REGULATORY BODIES, COURTS

RELATIVE COST CHANGES

* PEOPLE MORE THAN HARDWARE
* PAPER MORE THAN ELECTRONIC STORAGE
* COMMUNICATIONS MORE THAN COMPUTERS

TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION 1

* LARGE MACHINES
* BATCH OPERATION
* MULTI-PROGRAMMING
* LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
* TIME SHARING
* MINI-COMPUTERS
* USER ORIENTED LANGUAGES
* COMPUTER NETWORKS

TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION 2

* DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
* PERSONAL COMPUTERS
* USER DEVELOPED SYSTEMS
* EXPERT SYSTEMS
* CASE METHODOLOGY
* NETWORKING USERS & SYSTEMS
* WORKSTATION TECHNOLOGY
* MULTI-MEDIA

APPLICATION EVOLUTION

* ADMINISTRATIVE APPLICATIONS
* REPORT SYSTEMS
* DATA BASES
* MIS & DSS
* SIMULATION & MODELING
* AI & EXPERT SYSTEMS
* OFFICE AUTOMATION
* NETWORKS
* GROUPWARE
* TOOLKITS
* OPERATING SYSTEM INTERFACES (GUI)
* STRUCTURAL MODELING

MAJOR APPLICATION EXAMPLES

* PAYROLE SYSTEMS
* INVENTORY SYSTEMS
* LINEAR PROGRAMMING
* CRITICAL PATH SCHEDULING
* MANUFACTURING PROCESSING & CONTROL
* STATISTICAL ANALYSIS (E.G. MARKETING)
* TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS

CLASSIC MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

* CHANGING TECHNOLOGY

* 3-7 YEAR LIFETIMES
* HARDWARE & SOFTWARE

* MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES

* TRADEOFFS (NOT OPTIONAL)

* COMPUTER PROFESSIONALS

* MAVERICKS
* RAPID OBSOLESCENCE

* REDUCTIONISM

* DIFFICULT TO DEAL WITH FOREST

* NO RECIPES

* MANAGEMENT RULE CHANGE

COSTS 1

* 1960's

* HARDWARE 90%
* PEOPLE 10%
* MAKE SOFTWARE
* FREE SYSTEMS
* CENTRALIZATIONS
* UTILITIES
* APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

COSTS 2

* 1970's

* COST MINIMIZATIONS
* APPLICATION JUSTIFICATION
* CENTRALIZATION DATA COLLECTION
* TOP DOWN SYSTEM DESIGN
* PROMISE OF I.S. TO CONTROL OPERATIONS

COSTS 3

* 1980's

* HARDWARE 10%
* PEOPLE 90%
* BUY SOFTWARE
* OFFICE AUTOMATION
* DECENTRALIZATION
* END USER COMPUTING
* GET RID OF I.S. EMPIRE
* REDUCE EXPLICIT COSTS

COSTS 4

* 1990's

* HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE 20%
* PEOPLE 40%
* INFORMATION 40%
* TAILOR SOFTWARE
* VALUE OF INFORMATION
* BALANCE OF FUNCTIONS
* DATA & COMMUNICATIONS
* COGNITIVE VARIABILITY

ROOTS OF MIS AND DSS 1

* MIS

* WELL STRUCTURED PROBLEMS
* CENTRAL DATABASE
* MODEL OF THE FIRM
* COMPUTER SCIENCE
* INFORMATION SCIENCE
* OPERATIONS RESEARCH
* GENERAL APPROACH

ROOTS OF MIS & DSS 2

* DSS

* UNSTRUCTURED PROBLEMS
* TAILORED DATA AND MODELS
* MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
* INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
* EACH PROBLEM UNIQUE
* USER CENTERED APPROACH
* TOOLKITS

TYPICAL EVOLUTION 1

* EXPANSION

* UNDER UTILIZATION
* DO EVERYTHING

* COST CUTTING

* CONTROL
* POLITICAL REACTIONS

* MATURITY

* END USER COMPUTING
* STEERING COMMITTEES

TYPICAL EVOLUTION 2

* STRATEGIC

* TOOLBOXES
* TIED TO CORPORATE GOALS
* DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
* COMMUNICATIONS

I.S. MANAGEMENT ISSUES 1

* REMOTE WORK
* WORK AT HOME
* LATERAL PROJECT GROUPS
* MULTIPLE WORK ROLES
* STANDARDS & POLICIES

I.S. MANAGEMENT ISSUES 2

* QUALITY MEASUREMENT
* PROTOTYPING
* EVALUATION
* EVOLUTION
* USER INVOLVEMENT

FACTORS GENERATING I.S. DEMAND 1

* RAPID EVOLUTION OF TECHNOLOGY
* PENETRATION TO END USERS
* MULTITUDE OF ALTERNATIVES
* CHANGING SKILL LEVELS
* QUANTIFICATION OF OFFICE FUNCTIONS
* FRAGMENTED ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
* PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS

FACTORS GENERATING I.S. DEMAND 2

* ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS
* TIME, TRAVEL, COSTS
* INFORMATION AS A COMMODITY
* MORE COMPLEXITY
* DISPERSION OF OPERATIONS
* SOCIAL PRESSURES

INDIVIDUAL LEVEL CONSIDERATIONS

* DECISION ACCOUNTABILITY
* REMOTE WORK
* SPECIALIZATION/GENERALIZATION
* SKILLS
* ALIENATION/CONNECTIVENESS

PROBLEM AREAS 1

* PRIVACY

* TRACKING OF INDIVIDUALS
* DIVERSE SOURCES OF DATA
* DETECTION OF VALUES
* VALUE OF A NAME

* JOB DISPLACEMENT
* SPECIALIZATION
* OWNERSHIP OF INFORMATION

* COPYRIGHTS
* PROTECTIONISM
* PROPRIETARY

PROBLEM AREAS 2

* OVERLAPPING INDUSTRIES

* COMPUTERS
* INFORMATION (PUBLISHING)
* COMMUNICATION
* FINANCIAL

* COMPLEXITY OF SYSTEMS

* EFT, SOCIAL SECURITY
* IRS, FBI, CENSUS

* AUTOMATION
* TRAINING

AREAS OF CONCERN

* PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING
* EDUCATION
* INFORMATION RIGHTS
* INDUSTRY STRUCTURE
* RATE OF CHANGE

TRENDS OF CONCERN

* SPECIALIZATION
* CENTRALIZATION
* MEASUREMENT
* MOBILITY
* REDUCTIONISM
* SUB-OPTIMIZATION

UNDERSTANDING THE ART OF COMPUTING

* REDUCING A SINGLE COMPLEX PROBLEM TO A LARGE NUMBER OF SIMPLE PROBLEMS

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 1

* FUTURE TRENDS IN COMPUTER & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY
* SHORTENING TIME INTERVALS FOR CHANGE
* COMPLEXITY OF PROBLEMS
* INCREASING INFORMATION BASED WORK FORCE
* ATTITUDE OF YOUNGER GENERATIONS

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 2

* COSTS OF PEOPLE & SERVICES
* INCREASING RELATIVE COSTS OF ENERGY
* NETWORKING AS A SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY
* THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY
* PERSONAL COMPUTING AND BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS

CURRENT MANAGEMENT WISDOM 1

* CENTRALIZED CORE DP STAFF
* SEPARATE SYSTEMS ANALYSES
* SEPARATE MAINTENANCE
* USER GROUPS & INVOLVEMENT
* APPLICATION PROGRAMMERS
* EVOLUTIONARY DESIGN

CURRENT MANAGEMENT WISDOM 2

* DISTRIBUTED EQUIPMENT
* FEEDBACK APPROACHES
* STEERING COMMITTEES
* MICROS, MINIS, NETWORKS
* STRATEGIC & OPERATIONAL SYSTEMS
* STANDARDS & INTEGRATION
* EVALUATION & EVOLUTION

GO TO START


COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATIONS VIEW GRAPHS

* (c) Copyright 1992 Murray Turoff

CMC SYSTEM NAMES

* MESSAGE SYSTEMS
* BULLETIN BOARDS
* COMPUTER CONFERENCING
* INFORMATION EXCHANGE SYSTEMS
* GROUPWARE, TEAMWARE
* ELECTRONIC MEETING SYSTEMS (EMS)
* ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEMS (EMS)
* GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (GDSS)
* COORDINATION SYSTEMS
* COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS

CMC PROPERTIES 1

* WRITTEN FORM

* TEXT AND GRAPHICS

* ASYNCHRONOUS
* SIGNALING AND CUEING
* SHARED "GROUP" MEMORY

CMC PROPERTIES 2

* STRUCTURING

* ORGANIZATION OF MATERIAL
* COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS

* HUMAN ROLES

* FACILITATOR, EDITOR, INDEXER

* IMMEDIACY AND SELF ACTIVATION
* INTEGRATION

CMC COMMUNICATION PROPERTIES

* SEGMENTATION OF ITEMS
* SINGLE THOUGHT COMMENTS
* EXPLICIT FEEDBACK
* AGREEMENT, ETC.
* PARALINGUISTIC CUES
* LEADERSHIP AND FACILITATION
* CONCISENESS

CMC IMPLEMENTATION FACTORS 1

* 1. HAVE AN IMPORTANT TASK
* 2. GEOGRAPHICALLY DISPERSED GROUP
* 3. "BUSY" PEOPLE
* 4. SUFFICIENT CRITICAL MASS (>10)
* 5. WANT TO COOPERATE OR COMMUNICATE
* 6. CONVENIENT TERMINAL ACCESS

CMC IMPLEMENTATION FACTORS 2

* 7. ORIENTATION: AFFECTING EXPECTATIONS

* A. GOOD ADVERTISING
* B. PARTICIPATION IN DECISION TO USE IT

* 8. GOOD TRAINING AND SUPPORT
* 9. CONTENT LEADERSHIP WITHIN GROUP
* 10. FACILITATION OF PROCESS
* 11. "SYSTEM EVOLUTION"

CMC PHILOSOPHY OF UTILIZATION

* EVOLUTION OF

* USERS
* SYSTEM

* EVALUATION
* FEEDBACK
* REDESIGN
* USER PARTICIPATION

CMC TYPICAL FEATURES 1

* MESSAGES
* CONFERENCES
* NOTEBOOKS
* BULLETIN BOARDS
* DIRECTORY
* HUMAN ROLES

CMC TYPICAL FEATURES 2

* VOTING
* MEMBERS AND ROLES
* GROUPS
* FORMS
* ANONYMITY AND PEN-NAMES
* INDEXES AND KEYS
* FILTERS

CMC USER & ORGANIZATIONAL POTENTIALS 1

* GEOGRAPHICALLY DISPERSED WORK GROUPS
* MULTIPLE PROFESSIONAL & MANAGEMENT ROLES
* MULTITASKING OF EFFORTS
* MATRIX MANAGEMENT
* REMOTE WORK
* DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY

CMC USER & ORGANIZATIONAL POTENTIALS 2

* ACCOUNTABILITY
* FLATTER ORGANIZATIONS
* NETWORKED ORGANIZATIONS
* DECENTRALIZATION
* MORE GENERALIZED WORK FORCE
* ACCUMULATION OF LORE

FACTORS RELATED TO CMC

* EVOLUTION OF UTILIZATION
* EXPECTATIONS
* TASK TYPES
* GROUP SIZE & ACTIVITY
* PRODUCTIVITY
* SUPERCONNECTIVITY
* COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE

CMC SPECIAL APPLICATIONS

* UNPREDICTABLE INFORMATION EXCHANGE
* SHARING WISDOM & EXPERIENCE
* PEER REINFORCEMENT
* MULTIPLICATION OF PRODUCTIVITY
* CONTINUING EDUCATION

PROJECT MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATIONS

* INTEGRATION OF I.S.
* SUBJECTIVE JUDGMENTS
* LATERAL INPUT
* USE OF EXPERTS
* GEOGRAPHICAL DISPERSION
* CONTINUITY OVER TIME
* LORE CAPTURE
* MULTI-TASKING
* MULTIPLE ROLES
* TRACKING AND STATUS

PROJECT MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS

* TASK TRACKING
* SUGGESTIONS AND MODIFICATIONS
* PROJECT HISTORY
* CHANGING STAFF
* COORDINATION
* EVOLVING REQUIREMENTS
* CLIENT COMMUNICATIONS

COMMITTEE COMMUNICATIONS

* AGENDA SETTING
* DISCOVERY OF AGREEMENTS
* DISCOVERY OF DISAGREEMENTS
* VOTING
* ANONYMITY
* COORDINATION
* COLLABORATIVE COMPOSITION

CMC PRODUCTIVITY

* MORE IDEAS
* FEEDBACK
* INCREASED CONTACTS
* AWARENESS
* "SUPERCONNECTIVITY"
* "COLLABORATIVE INTELLIGENCE"

CMC ACCEPTANCE FACTORS

* MOTIVATION
* EXPECTATIONS
* GROUP SIZE & ACTIVITY
* AVAILABLE HELP
* TERMINAL AND SYSTEM ACCESS
* PRIOR EXPERIENCE
* PRIOR COMMUNICATION
* GROUP OBJECTIVES
* GROUP ATMOSPHERE

* TRUST
* DESIRE TO COMMUNICATE
* PEER RELATIONSHIP

CMC SUCCESS PROPERTIES

* PEER GROUP
* WANT TO COMMUNICATION
* WANT TO ACCOMPLISH
* WANT TO IMPROVE
* HAVE OBJECTIVE
* ESTABLISH SOCIAL NORMS
* TRUST ONE ANOTHER
* SOCIAL EMOTIONAL COMMUNICATION

CMC UNPREDICTABLE INFORMATION EXCHANGE

* LIMITED SIZE INQUIRY
* BROADCAST INQUIRY
* LIMITED RESPONSES
* SELECTION & TRACKING
* DATA BASE AND BRIEFS
* INDEXER
* BRIEFER

CMC SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 1

* GROUP COMPOSITION
* DATA VALIDATION
* BUDGET PLANNING
* PROJECT MANAGEMENT
* INFORMATION EXCHANGE
* STANDARD SETTING
* DICTATORSHIP DESIGNS

CMC SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES 2

* DELPHI STRUCTURES
* SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE
* COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
* MARKETPLACES
* CONSENSUS EXPLORATION
* ROLE GAMES
* GROUP THERAPY

VIRTUAL CLASSROOM

* SELF PACING
* COLLABORATIVE LEARNING
* CONVENIENCE OF ACCESS
* ACTIVE PARTICIPATION

CMC VIRTUAL CLASSROOM APPROACHES

* COLLECTIVE LEARNING
* PARTICIPATION
* GROUP ACTIVITIES
* VISITING EXPERTS
* GROUP GRAPHICS
* SELF PACING
* ACTIVE LEARNING

CMC VIRTUAL CLASSROOM FEATURES

* QUESTIONS
* DOCUMENTS
* SELECTIONS
* ASSIGNMENTS
* GRADE BOOK
* EXAMS
* GROUP GRAPHICS
* GROUP CONFERENCES

CRISIS MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

* MONITORING
* UNPREDICTABLE RESPONSIBILITIES
* INCREASED LEAD TIME
* TIME PRESSURES
* COORDINATION
* OVERSIGHT
* DELEGATION & ACCOUNTABILITY
* CONTENT AS ADDRESS

CRISES MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS

* OBTAIN VIEWS AND DATA
* MONITOR CONDITIONS
* OBTAIN EXPERTISE
* DRAFT CONTINGENCIES
* VALIDATE OPTIONS
* OBTAIN APPROVALS
* DELEGATE AUTHORITY
* ESTABLISH ACCOUNTABILITY
* ELIMINATE DUPLICATION
* COORDINATE
* INFORM
* TAKE ACTIONS

CRISIS MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS

* UNPREDICTABLE EVENTS
* RESPONSIBILITY BY NECESSITY
* LACK OF TIME FOR TRAINING
* OVERLOAD CONDITIONS
* SYNCHRONOUS COMMUNICATIONS DIFFICULT
* UNKNOWN MANPOWER NEEDS

CMC CRISIS MANAGEMENT

* CMC PROPERTIES
* ADDRESS BY TOPIC
* SHARED SPACES
* STRUCTURED STATUS REPORTS
* STRUCTURED TASK TRACKING
* INTERPRETIVE INFORMATION
* ACCOUNTABILITY AND STATUS

GO TO START


REMOTE WORK View Graphs

* (c) Copyright 1992 Murray Turoff

REMOTE WORK HOME REQUIREMENTS

* WORKSTATION SPACE
* ADDED PHONE LINES
* VISITOR SPACE
* FILING SPACE
* SOFTWARE
* MANUALS
* DOCUMENTS
* REFERENCE MATERIAL
* ISOLATION

* CHILDREN
* SPOUSES
* NEIGHBOURS

REMOTE WORK TIME AT HOME

* 28% > 50% OF TIME
* 11% > 25% OF TIME
* MORE PRODUCTIVE = 60%
* MORE HOURS = 78%
* N=62

REMOTE WORK PROPERTIES

* MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION
* OBSERVATION
* STEP IN WHEN NEEDED
* JUDGED BY TALENTS OF THOSE MANAGED
* QUALITY OF WORK
* PERFORMANCE OF TEAM
* CHANGES
* SUGGESTIONS
* COORDINATION
* RATIONALE
* HELP

REMOTE WORK TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS 1

* INDIVIDUAL

* ELECTRONIC MAIL
* FILES & INDEXING
* TEXT PROCESSING
* I.S. INTERFACES
* INTEGRATION

REMOTE WORK TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS 2

* TEAM

* COMPUTERIZED CONFERENCING
* ROLES
* GROUP COMPOSITION
* DATA BASES/FORMS
* TRACKING
* TRANSACTIONS
* MILESTONES
* EVENTS

REMOTE WORK VIEWPOINT

* MANAGERS & PROFESSIONALS

* NOT TOTAL

* SOPHISTICATED COMMUNICATIONS
* TEAM ORIENTATION

* MOTIVATION & DISCIPLINE

REMOTE WORK EXECUTIVE USE

* 40 HOURS IN 3 MONTHS
* 55% NEVER BEFORE
* 22% OCCASIONAL
* 45% HUNT & PECK
* 50% 100% AT HOME
* 25% 90% AT HOME
* 85% OWN KEYBOARDING

REMOTE WORK IMPACTS

* NETWORK ORGANIZATION
* MULTI-ROLE ENVIRONMENT
* MULTI-PROJECT ENVIRONMENT
* TEAM ORIENTATION
* MORE PROJECTS
* FLATTER STRUCTURE
* MORE SOCIALIZATION
* MULTI-TASKING
* OVERLOADING
* MORE CRITICISM (FLAMING)

REMOTE WORK DANGERS

* EXPLOITATION
* PIECE WORK & SWEAT SHOPS
* MIGRANT WORKERS
* SHIFTING CAPITAL COSTS
* EQUIPMENT
* SPACE
* VIRTUAL WORKERS
* INVISIBLE WORKERS
* DILUTE UNIONS
* EQUIPMENT ADVANTAGES
* CONTRACT EMPLOYEES

REMOTE WORK APPEAL

* FLEX-TIME
* HEAP HOURS
* LESS TRAVEL TIME & COST
* FAMILY INVOLVEMENT
* WORKAHOLIC DREAM/NIGHTMARE
* BETTER QUALITY
* INCREASED CONTROL

REMOTE WORK INDIVIDUAL IMPACTS 1

* LESS SPECIALIZATION
* MORE DIVERSITY
* MORE MOBILITY
* MORE CONTROL
* MORE RESPONSIBILITY
* MORE CONTACTS
* INFORMATION OVERLOAD

REMOTE WORK INDIVIDUAL IMPACTS 2

* TOO MANY ACTIVITIES
* MORE HOURS
* INTENSIVE ESCAPES
* RAPID FIRE PROJECTS
* ADDICTION
* COLLECTING
* JUNKYARDS
* HERMITING

REMOTE WORK MANAGEMENT IMPACTS 1

* LOSS OF CONTROL
* EMOTIONAL DEALINGS
* FACILITATION
* MEASUREMENT OF

* QUALITY
* QUANTITY

* FLUIDITY
* NEGOTIATION
* TRUST & RESPECT

REMOTE WORK MANAGEMENT IMPACTS 2

* EXCEPTION MANAGEMENT
* DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
* INCREASED ACCOUNTABILITY
* MATRIX MANAGEMENT
* LORE CAPTURE

* CHANGES
* RATIONAL

* TASK SWITCHING
* EXPERT USE

REMOTE WORK MISCONCEPTIONS

* COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS
* LOWER LEVEL WORKERS
* COMPUTERIZED TASKS
* INCREASED SPECIALIZATION

GO TO START


MATERIAL FROM PAPERS View Graphs

* (c) Copyright 1992 Murray Turoff

POSITIONS IN THE INDUSTRY I

* TECHNICISM

* INSTRUMENT OF PROGRESS
* SOLUTIONS CHASING PROBLEMS
* PROMOTION & BELIEF
* CONVERSION OF MASSES

POSITIONS IN THE INDUSTRY II

* PROGRESS INDIVIDUALISM

* FAITH IN PROGRESS
* IMPERFECTIONS IN HUMANS
* REFORMISM & PRAGMATISM
* INFLUENCE SOCIAL CHANGE
* NEAR TERM CONCERNS

POSITIONS IN THE INDUSTRY III

* ELITISM

* EXPERT GUIDANCE
* SOCIAL ENGINEERING
* PLANNED CHANGE
* PROGRESS BY TECHNICAL & SOCIAL INNOVATION

POSITIONS IN THE INDUSTRY IV

* PLURALISM

* INFORMATION AS POWER
* A DEMOCRATIC PROCESS
* ALL CONCERNED PARTIES
* NEED FOR POLICIES
* SOCIAL INFLUENCES TECHNOLOGY

POSITIONS IN THE INDUSTRY V

* DETERMINISM

* NO HUMAN CONTROL OVER
* TECHNOLOGY
* DRIVING FORCE IS TECHNOLOGY
* TOO COMPLEX TO UNDERSTAND

POSITIONS IN THE INDUSTRY VI

* RADICAL CRITICISM
* DEVOLUTIONISM

* NEED FOR COUNTERING
* SOCIAL FORCES
* NEW SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS

INFORMATION SYSTEM WARGAMES 1

* WHO OWNS THE DATA?
* WHO WILL SHARE IT?
* WHO WILL SUPPLY IT?
* WHO GAINS THE BENEFITS?
* WHO GAINS THE COSTS?

INFORMATION SYSTEM WARGAMES 2

* WHAT WILL BE THE "PERCEIVED" IMPACT OF REDISTRIBUTION ON:

* 1. EVALUATION
* 2. INFLUENCE
* 3. AUTHORITY
* 4. COMMUNICATIONS

* INTRODUCTION OF A NEW INFORMATION SYSTEMS:

* "DECLARATION OF WAR"

COUNTERIMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 1

* DIVERTING RESOURCES

* EASY MONEY: TAKE RESOURCES
* EASY LIFE: TAKE CHARGE
* PORK BARREL: TAKE PIECE

* DEFLECTING GOALS

* PILE ON: DO IT RIGHT
* KEEP THE PEACE: INVOLVE ALL
* UP FOR GRABS: SHIFT IT AROUND

COUNTERIMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 2

* DISSIPATING ENERGIES

* TENACITY: DO IT OVER
* TENACITY: DO IT OVER
* TERRITORY: THAT IS OUR JOB
* NOT OUR PROBLEM: PASS IT
* ODD MAN OUT: DROP OUT AFTER
* REPUTATION: LATEST & SEXIEST

COUNTERIMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES 3

* CONTRACT FOR CHANGE
* HAVE A FIXER(GODFATHER)
* SEEK OUT RESISTANCE & RESPOND TO IT
* BECOME AN INSIDER
* BUILD CREDIBILITY
* BUILD COALITIONS
* INTRODUCE INCREMENTALLY
* CO-OP USERS EARLY
* SIMPLE THINGS FIRST
* MAKE IT CLEAR
* MAKE IT DEFINITE

OVERCOMING SOCIAL INERTIA

* CHANGE IS DEMAND DRIVEN

* CRISES IS THE MOTHER OF INVENTION

* CHANGE MUST FIND A PLACE IN ORGANIZATION

* BENEFITS TO UNITS IN ORGANIZATION

* CHANGE MUST BE PERCEIVED

* INSTITUTIONALIZE IN PLANNING PROCESS

I.S. INTRODUCTION 1

* WHO OWNS THE DATE?
* WHO WILL SHARE IT?
* WHAT WILL BE REDISTRIBUTION OF:

* EVALUATION
* COMMUNICATIONS
* INFLUENCE
* AUTHORITY

* WHO GAINS THE BENEFITS?
* WHO GAINS THE COSTS?

I.S. INTRODUCTION 2

* WHO WANTS SYSTEM?
* WHO MUST CARE AND FEED SYSTEM?
* HOW LONG TILL BENEFITS?
* HOW MUCH NEGATIVE CASH FLOW?

* DEFINITION OF "RUNNAWAY"

* WHAT BENEFITS DIRECT OR INTANGIBLE?
* WHAT COSTS ARE MEASURABLE AND WHAT ARE NOT?

GO TO START


MISCELLANEOUS View Graphs

* (c) Copyright 1992 Murray Turoff

MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES

* DEAD END INVESTMENTS IN HARDWARE OR MODULAR SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT
* ASSEMBLY LINE OR JOB ENRICHMENT?
* HIDDEN COST OR REALISTIC LIFE CYCLE COSTS?
* ORGANIZATIONAL DINOSAUR OR BEYOND CENTRALIZATION/DECENTRALIZATION?
* INVASION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY OR SOCIOTECHNICAL DESIGN?
* OCCUPATIONAL OBSOLESCENCE OR NEW CONCEPTS OF WORK AND JOB?

PRIVACY & SECURITY

* TECHNOLOGY STILL EXPENSIVE
* INTERNAL ABUSE VERY POSSIBLE

* E.G., PERSONAL RECORDS

* HACKERS NOT THE PROBLEM
* KEY IS:

* MANAGEMENT ATMOSPHERE
* EMPLOYEE ATTITUDE
* ADEQUATE TRACKING
* REASONABLE PRECAUTIONS

PRIVACY AND SECURITY

* PRIVACY EMPHASIZES DATA CONFIDENTIALITY
* SECURITY ENTAILS PROTECTIVE MEASURES
* OVERLAPPING AREA:

* THE PROTECTION OF AN INDIVIDUAL AGAINST IMPROPER COLLECTION AND DISSEMINATION OF DATA(PRIVACY)
* THE PROTECTION OF DATA AGAINST ITS USE BY UNAUTHORIZED PERSONS (SECURITY)

PRIVACY: DATA CONFIDENTIALITY

* 1. THE CLAIM OF INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS OR INSTITUTIONS TO DETERMINE FOR THEMSELVES WHEN, HOW , AND TO WHAT EXTENT DATA ABOUT THEM ARE COMMUNICATED TO OR USED BY OTHERS;
* 2. THE PROTECTION OF AN INDIVIDUAL AGAINST HARM OR DAMAGE AS A RESULT OF THE OPERATION OF A RECORD SYSTEM; AND
* 3. THE PROTECTION OF AN INDIVIDUAL (OR CLASS OF INDIVIDUALS) AGAINST UNWELCOME, UNFAIR, IMPROPER, OR EXCESSIVE COLLECTION OR DISSEMINATION OF DATA ABOUT THAT PERSON

SECURITY: PROTECTIVE MEASURES

* 1. PROTECT A COMPUTER BASED SYSTEM INCLUDING ITS PHYSICAL HARDWARE, PERSONNEL, AND DATA AGAINST DELIBERATE OR ACCIDENTAL DAMAGE FROM A DEFINED THREAT;
* 2. PROTECT THE SYSTEM AGAINST DENIAL-OF-USER BY ITS RIGHTFUL OWNERS; AND
* 3. PROTECT DATA AND/OR PROGRAMS AND/OR SYSTEM PRIVILEGES AGAINST DIVULGENCE TO OR USE BY UNAUTHORIZED PERSONS

SECURITY and PRIVACY: OVERLAPPING AREA

* 1. THE PROTECTION OF AN INDIVIDUAL AGAINST IMPROPER COLLECTION AND DISSEMINATION OF DATA (PRIVACY: #3).
* 2. THE PROTECTION OF DATA AGAINST ITS USE BY UNAUTHORIZED PERSONS (SECURITY: #3)

PEOPLE REACTIONS TO INTERFACES

* FISHBOWL
* PEEPHOLE
* BULLY
* CONCRETE
* CLUTTER
* COMPUTER ANGST
* PEOPLE ANGST
* RORSCHACH BLOT

* HELPER, ACCOMPLICE, FOE, EVALUATOR, TUTOR, TASK MASTER

USER FRIENDLY

* PROPER FUNCTIONALITY
* COGNITIVE MATCH
* INTERFACE ADAPTABILITY
* SYSTEM RELIABILITY
* REASONABLE COST
* HUMAN FACTORS
* TIME TO LEARN
* RESPONSIVENESS
* ERROR HANDLING
* USER SATISFACTION
* ADAPTABILITY

REASONS FOR INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS

* OPEN ENDED TASKS
* COGNITIVE VARIABILITY
* INCREMENTAL APPROACHES
* TIME CRITICALITY
* NON-PREDICTABILITY
* NOT POSSIBLE BEFORE
* REDUCED EFFORT
* IMPROVED QUALITY

PHASES OF USER EVOLUTION

* UNCERTAINTY
* INSIGHT
* INCORPORATION
* SATURATION

NEW SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES

* NETWORKING
* COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS
* EXPERT SYSTEMS
* MODELING AND SIMULATION
* DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
* HYPERTEXT
* USER GENERATED SYSTEMS
* OBJECT ORIENTED SYSTEMS
* SEMANTIC DATA SYSTEMS

MICROS & WORKSTATIONS 1

* FIRST GENERATION (8 BIT)

* PERSONAL TOOLS
* INDIVIDUAL PROGRAMS
* PROGRAMMING SKILLS

* SECOND GENERATION (16 & 32 BITS)

* INTEGRATED SYSTEMS
* LOCAL AREA NETWORKS
* GRAPHICS
* INTERFACE CONCERN

MICROS & WORKSTATIONS 2

* THIRD GENERATION

* MULTIMEDIA
* COMMUNICATIONS
* USER GENERATED APPLICATIONS
* DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING
* STANDARDS

APPLICATION WORKSTATIONS

* PROGRAMMERS WORKBENCH
* WRITERS WORKBENCH
* COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
* COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING
* DECISION SUPPORT TOOLBOXES
* EXECUTIVE WORKSTATION
* MANAGERIAL WORKSTATION
* ADMINISTRATIVE WORKSTATION
* SECRETARIAL WORKSTATION
* CLERICAL WORKSTATION

CENTRALIZATION

* PROFESSIONAL CONTROL
* EXPERT USE
* COMPLEX OPERATIONS
* REDUCED:

* HARDWARE COSTS
* EXPERT COSTS
* DEVELOPMENT COSTS

* STAFF SPECIALIZATION
* NARROW CENTRAL CONTROL

DECENTRALIZATION

* USER CONTROL
* USER RESPONSIVENESS
* SIMPLER OPERATION
* REDUCED:

* USER COSTS
* COMMUNICATION COSTS
* DATA QUALITY COSTS

* STAFF GENERALIZATION
* BROAD LATERAL CONTROL

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT FACTORS 1

* TYPE OF ORGANIZATION

* GOVERNMENT, MILITARY, ACADEMIC, COMMERCIAL, INDUSTRIAL

* STYLE AND AGE OF ORGANIZATION

* OLD, NEW, CHARISMATIC, BUREAUCRATIC

* TYPE OF ACTIVITY

* INSURANCE, BANKING, MANUFACTURING, RETAILING, LOCAL GOVERNMENT, PUBLIC UTILITY

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT FACTORS 2

* PROJECTS:

* TIME SCALE
* NUMBER OF PROJECTS
* COMPLEXITY OF PROJECTS
* RATE OF CHANGE
* TYPE OF CHANGE
* TYPE OF SYSTEMS

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT FACTORS 3

* PEOPLE:

* APTITUDE AND ATTITUDE
* STAFF TURNOVER
* INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
* CLIMATE
* AVAILABILITY

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT FACTORS 4

* MANAGEMENT:

* PHILOSOPHY AND QUALITY
* PLANNING CYCLE
* DEGREE OF CENTRALIZATION
* STYLE
* CLIMATE (FREEDOM OF ACTION)

SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT FACTORS 5

* ORGANIZATION:

* RIGIDITY
* SIZE AND COMPLEXITY
* RATE OF CHANGE
* LEVELS IN HIERARCHY
* SPAN OF CONTROL

* PHYSICAL

* LOCATION
* SPREAD OF LOCATIONS
* WORKING LOCATION
* NATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS

MANAGEMENT FACTORS

* SYSTEM ECONOMICS
* MANAGEMENT PLANNING SUPPORT
* MANAGEMENT MONITORING SUPPORT
* MANAGEMENT CONTROL SUPPORT
* POSITIVE PERSONAL I.D.
* IMPACT ON ORGANIZATION
* IMPACT ON PACE OF CHANGE

PEOPLE FACTORS

* ANTHROPOMETRICS
* FATIGUE
* ADAPTATION
* ISOLATION/SOCIALIZATION
* JOB ENRICHMENT/JOB CONTENT CHANGE
* PRIVACY
* PACE OF INFORMATION FLOW

PROCESSING FACTORS

* WORD PROCESSING
* GRAPHICS
* CALCULATION AND COMPUTATION
* REMOTE PROCESSOR LINKS
* LOCAL APPLICATIONS
* ARCHIVAL FILING AND RETRIEVAL
* RELIABILITY AND BACK-UP
* MEDIA CONVERSION
* DATA SECURITY AND CONFIDENTIALITY
* SOFTWARE UPDATES AND MAINTENANCE

COMMUNICATION FACTORS

* CHANNEL AND SWITCH LOADING
* DATA TRANSMISSION PROTOCOLS
* CODE SELECTION
* TEXT FILE TRANSMISSION PROTOCOLS
* DATA COMPRESSION
* DIRECTORY MAINTENANCE
* LINE SECURITY
* LOCAL BANDWIDTH

ENVIRONMENT FACTORS

* SPACE PLANNING
* AESTHETICS
* ACCESS TO ELECTRONICS FOR MAINTENANCE
* SYSTEM POWER AVAILABILITY/CONSUMPTION
* POWER PROTECTION
* HEAT DISSIPATION
* NOISE CONTROL
* PHYSICAL SECURITY
* CABLING
* PERSON MACHINE INTERFACE

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