DESIGN OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS
Overheads Set I
by Murray Turoff
Department of Computer and Information Science
New Jersey Institute of Technology
Newark NJ, 07102
TEL: 973 596 3399
email: turoff@vc.njit.edu
homepage://eies.njit.edu/~turoff/
© Copyright 1998 Murray Turoff
CONTENTS
 
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
Subject One

© copyright 1998 Murray Turoff

Where is the wisdom we lost in knowledge?

Where is the knowledge we lost in information?

T. S. Eliot (The Rock)
 

ATMOSPHERE

HUMAN     COMPUTER

How do we design a communication process between the two?
 
WHY INTERACTIVE I
WHY INTERACTIVE II
INFORMATION DOMAINS OF USERS I
INFORMATION DOMAINS OF USERS II
 
STAGES OF USER EVOLUTION
USER CHARACTERISTICS
DESIGN METHODS I
DESIGN METHODS II
 
THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

 

MODELS I
MODELS II
PROCESSES I
PROCESSES II
VIRTUALITY
Virtuality is the process whereby the implementation model in the computer replaces the real world model in a system made up in part of people.
GENERAL SYSTEMS VIEW
Law of Requisite Variety Applies: The inputs to a system must be as rich/variable as the outputs if one wishes to control the outputs of a system.
FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM I
 
FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM II
PLAYING MUSIC PROBLEM
COMMON PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS
PSYCHOLOGICAL ROLES (Rorschach Blots) OF COMPUTERS
Evaluator, Magician, Helper, Entertainer, Companion, Challenger, Foe, Mentor, Accomplice, Producer, Overseer, Dictator, Priest, Servant, Picky Parent, Unruly Child, God, etc.
 
USER RESPONSE TO INADEQUATE SYSTEM
Sources of Knowledge and Wisdom I
Sources of Knowledge and Wisdom II
 
Sources of Knowledge and Wisdom III
Sources of Knowledge and Wisdom IV
Sources of Knowledge and Wisdom V
Sources of Knowledge and Wisdom VI
 
Sources of Knowledge and Wisdom VII
 
DIMENSIONS OF INTERFACE DESIGN
Subject two

© copyright 1998 Murray Turoff

CRITERIA FOR FACTOR DIMENSIONS
BASIC CATEGORIES OF DIMENSIONS
 
FOUNDATION FACTORS
UNDERSTANDING / EASE OF LEARNING I
UNDERSTANDING / EASE OF LEARNING II
SENSE OF CONTROL I
 
SENSE OF CONTROL II
EFFECTIVENESS I
EFFECTIVENESS II
PSYCHOLOGICAL & SOCIOLOGICAL I
 
PSYCHOLOGICAL & SOCIOLOGICAL II
ADMINISTRATIVE
EXAMPLES OF CONFLICTS AND TRADEOFFS
COMMON DESIGN FAULTS I
COMMON DESIGN FAULTS II
COMMON DESIGN FAULTS III
INTERACTION METHODS I
INTERACTION METHODS II
 
 
THE DESIGN PROCESS
Subject Three

© copyright 1998 Murray Turoff

DOING DESIGN
DESIGN COMPONENTS I
ISSUES
RECIPE SYSTEM OBJECTIVES I
RECIPE SYSTEM OBJECTIVES II
Insure that individuals can learn to use this system very easily and be able to accomplish frequently occurring operations with a minimum of effort.
USER TASK: search requirements
RECIPE SYSTEM METAPHORS
RECIPE TOOLS/ARTIFACTS
TOOL EXAMPLE: RDA calibration
Function to modify Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) values for individual (lower salt, etc.) which would change nutritional calculation

Total Fat, Saturated fat, Polyunsaturated fat, Monounsaturated fat, Cholesterol, Sodium, Carbohydrates, Dietary Fiber, Protein, Sugars, Vitamins, etc.

 
DESIGN COMPONENTS II
RECIPE OBJECT PARTS
RECIPE REPRESENTATIONS
OTHER POTENTIAL OBJECTS
MEAL/MENU Object
Appetizers, Drinks, Breads, Soup, Salad, Cleanser, Main course(s), Vegetables, Starch, Desert, After dinner drinks dinner, lunch, breakfast, brunch, family style, picnic, etc.
 
DESIGN COMPONENTS III
GENERIC & EXPLICIT FUNCTIONS
Get, Find, Create, Modify, Delete Add, Remove (term), Index (as verb) object, Change (term), Merge (terms), Split (term), Order (index), vote
STRATEGIC MENU/CHOICES
 
Object Number Actions
Recipes
3,455
Get
Meals
238
Find
Lists Changes
Keys
485
Create / Add
Ingredients
9,989
Modify /Change
Marked
35
Delete / Remove
 
EXAMPLE REACTIVE FUNCTIONS
REACTIVE MENU SAMPLE
EXAMPLES OF CONTROLS
One can trace the evolution of interface design through the evolution as to what has become a commonly acceptable control "tool"
DESIGN COMPONENTS IV
 
MODIFIERS
LINKAGES I
LINKAGES II
LINKAGE TYPES: Open Ended
 
OBSERVATION ABOUT RECIPE
LIST PROCESSING
KEY LIST SAMPLE I
KEY LIST SAMPLE II
 
ALTERNATIVE KEY STRUCTURES
KEY LIST OPTIONS
SEARCH ISSUES I
SEARCH ISSUES II
Whether to initiate a search of material found or to search the material not retrieved and how to combine this with the prior searches.
DESIGN COMPONENTS V
OBJECT FORMAT
Rattlesnake Stew

Created: 8/12/91 Modified: 6/5/92
Keys: /meat.snake/exotic/rich/

American.southwest.Indian/

Servings: 2 Preparation Time: 90 min.

Last used: 12/8/92 Times used: 15

Characteristics: High Fat, Stewed

Utensils: Simmering Pot

Remarks: Supplied by John Franklin from my National Guard unit. Tastes very much like rich oily chicken.

INTEGRATION EXTENSIONS
DESIGN COMPONENTS VI
DESIGN COMPONENTS VII
 
DESIGN COMPONENTS VIII
Design Levels I
GENERAL SPECIFIC DETAIL
Goals User Task  
Metaphors    
Objects Heading, Abstract 

Content

Object parts 

Sub-objects 

Formats 

Linkages

Functions / Actions Generic 

Links

Explicit, Controls
 
 
Design Levels 2
 
GENERAL  SPECIFIC DETAIL
Strategic Choice Sets Reactive Choice Sets  
Shared Processes Searching 

List Processing

 
Interaction States Screen layouts 

Error Conditions 

Necessary Help

Workspace, Status, Control, & System message area
 
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS
Subject Four

© copyright 1998 Murray Turoff

Language is the dress of thought

Samuel Johnson

 

WHY DO IT?
KEY ASSUMPTION
CONCERNS ABOUT THE METHOD
NECESSARY ATMOSPHERE
 
STIMULUS RESPONSE METHOD
MODES OF PROBING
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS CONDITIONS
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS PROCESS I
 
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS PROCESS II
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS PROCESS III
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS PROCESS IV
MAJOR LIMITATION
TYPICAL WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS
 
CODING SCHEMA FOR VERBALIZATION I
CODING SCHEMA FOR VERBALIZATION II
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS OBSERVATIONS I
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS OBSERVATIONS II
 
INCREASING VERBALIZATION
OBJECTIVES FOR INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS I
OBJECTIVES FOR INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS II
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS ADVANTAGES
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS REQUIREMENTS
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS QUESTIONS
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS: HOW TO I
PROTOCOL ANALYSIS HOW TO II
UTILITY OF MOCK UP
 
UTILITY OF WORKING SYSTEM
Wizard of Oz System
BASIC QUESTIONS I
BASIC QUESTIONS II
 
WHEN TO USE
 
INDEXING & SEARCHING
Subject Five

© copyright 1998 Murray Turoff

"When I use a word," Humpty-Dumpty said, "it means

just what I choose it to mean -- neither more nor less."

--Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland

 

PART OF THE PROBLEM
Bible, Holy Bible, La Sainte Bible, Biblis Sacra, Bible wordo, biblia, Scriptures, Holy Scriptures, The Scriptures, Sacra Scrittur, Saintes, New Testament, Old Testament, Testament, Nouveau Testament, Avrcien, Vetus Testamentum, vetus novum, nuovo testament, gospels, evangelium secundum, mathhewm, gospel of St. Matthew, epistle to the romans, acts of the apostles, proverbs, psalms ecclesistes.
SEARCH MATCHING PROBLEM
 
MULTIPLE MEANINGS: AMBIGUITY
INDEXING TYPES
HIERARCHICAL
NETWORK (LATERAL LINKS)
CITATION INDEX I
CITATION INDEX II
For a paper published at any time in the past and referenced by papers published in that time frame, the results is a list of which papers referenced the earlier papers.
CITATION INDEX PROPERTIES
CITATION INDEX UTILITY
SUBJECT HEADINGS
Open choice as to file objects in multiple headings but not commonly done except through lateral linkages (e.g. cross references)
KEY WORD AND COORDINATE SYSTEMS
 
SYNTACTIC LANGUAGES: Tagged Descriptors
SYNTACTIC LANGUAGES: Faceted Index
MIXED INDEX EXAMPLE
NATURAL LANGUAGE: Phrases
KWIC INDEX
NATURAL LANGUAGE: Abstracts, Paragraphs
INDEXING EFFECTIVENESS I
Relevant Non Relevant

Retrieved A B

Not Retrieved C D

Precision = A / (A+B)

Recall = A / (A+C)

Specificity = D / (B+D)

Total Size Dependent (D)

Search Efficiency = (Recall)x(Specificity)

INDEXING EFFECTIVENESS II
Cannot have both high precision and high recall with qualitative information and even very complex quantitative databases (e.g. all known plastics, metal alloys, etc.)
INDEXING EFFECTIVENESS III
INDEXING EFFECTIVENESS IV
 
INDEXING EFFECTIVENESS V
EVALUATION DIMENSIONS I
INDEX TYPE AMBIGUITY            EXPRESSIVE             CONCISE HIERARCHICAL
                                LOW                           LOW                        HIGH
NETWORK
SUBJECTS
FIXED KEYS
FREE KEYS
TAGGED DESCRIPTORS
FACETED INDEXES
PHRASES
NATURAL LANGUAGE

                                    HIGH                         HIGH                     LOW

EVALUATION DIMENSIONS II
INDEX TYPE                     RETRIEVAL                 SELECTION                 ADOPTION                                      EFFORT                       EFFORT                     EFFORT
HIERARCHICAL
                                       LOW                             HIGH                             HIGH
NETWORK
SUBJECTS
FIXED KEYS
FREE KEYS LOW
TAGGED DESCRIPTORS
FACETED INDEXES
PHRASES
NATURAL LANGUAGE
                                     HIGH                                 LOW                             HIGH
IDEAL USE OF INDEX TYPES I
 
IDEAL USE OF INDEX TYPES II
IDEAL USE OF INDEX TYPES III
ZIPF’S LAW
SAMPLE Zipf List I
Word     Rank     Frequency     R x F

the            1         68,315         68,315
of              2         35,716         71,432
and           3         27,856         83,568
to              4         26,760        107,040
a                5         22,744        113,720
in              6         21,108         126,648
that           7         11,188         78,316
is               8         10,978         87,824
was           9         10,499          94,491
it              10        10,010         100,100

 
Sample Zipf List II
Word     Rank     Frequency     R x F

sir           195             452         88,140
it's          196             452         88,592
why        197             451         88,847
asked     198             448         88,704
give        199             446         88,754
once       200             443         88,600

Sample Zipf list III
Word     Rank     Frequency     R x F

usually  400             239         95,600
tax         500             167         83,500
ideas      800             128         102,400
proved   1,170          88           102,960
sections 2,146         49            105,154
flames 5,070            17             86,190
cultures 7,020         11             77,220

OBSERVATIONS ON LANGUAGE
Can be derived from Classical Information Theory by minimizing total length of codes to represent message. Done years later after Zipf’s empirical studies.
CONSEQUENCES
SEMANTIC BALANCE I
SEMANTIC BALANCE II
First 1,000 words (after initial 500) have like 6,000 meanings, meaning they are used much more often than later words. (Ave. = 6)
Zipf RELATIONSHIPS
ZIPF’s STUDIES I
ZIPF’s STUDIES II
SYSTEMATIC KEY WORD LIST DEVELOPMENT I
 
SYSTEMATIC KEY WORD LIST DEVELOPMENT II
Do correlation studies of two, three, four, and five terms together (within same paragraph, sentence) to seek clusters of matches.
PREPARING THE SAMPLE
a about above after afterall afterward again against all almost already also although always am an and another any anyone anything are as at
SEARCH APPROACHES I
SEARCH APPROACHES II
SUBJECTIVE HUMAN INDEXING
 
SEARCH PROCEDURES I
1 Perceiving a need to find

information.

2 Formulating the request for

information.

3 Selection of the source for the

information.

SEARCH PROCEDURES II
4 Specifying the search strategy.

4.1 Browse the index, provide

numbers

4.2 Expand and contract levels

4.3 Mark multiple choices (or)

4.4 Provide for: or (novice), and, not

conditions, also distance

conditions

SEARCH PROCEDURES III
5 Carrying out the search

(mechanics).

5.1 Show number of hits

dynamically

5.2 Browse the hit list

5.3 Mark, Nest, Backup, Merge,

Restart

SEARCH PROCEDURES IV
6 Evaluating the results

6.1 Update index or list. Determine

relevance

6.2 Saving, printing, viewing,

categorization

6.3 Merging, reordering, clean up,

store strategy

End of Lecture 1-5 Set