OVERHEADS II: DESIGN OF INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS

BY MURRAY TUROFF

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
NEWARK NJ, 07102
TEL: 201 596 3399
(c) Copyright 1991 Murray Turoff

click here to view slide by slide


    CONTENTS

  1. Direct Manipulation
  2. Visibility
  3. User Characteristics
  4. Help
  5. Proportions
  6. Color
  7. Hypertext
  8. Computer Mediated Communications
  9. Future Research


DIRECT MANIPULATION

* (c) copyright 1991 Murray Turoff

DIRECT MANIPULATION i

* DISTANCES

* BETWEEN USERS COGNITIVE VIEW AND THE WAY IT IS DONE

* SEMANTIC: APL, SPREADSHEETS
* ARTICULATORY: PINBALL CONSTRUCTION

* GULF OF EXECUTION: CONTROL
* GULF OF EVALUATION: OUTPUT
* "TURING TAR PIT"

DIRECT MANIPULATION II

* ENGAGEMENT
* CONVERSATION MODEL
* DISTANCE TO
* USER GOALS\ SEM. D.M.
*
* LARGE LOW LEVEL LOW LEVEL
* (EXPERT) LANGUAGE MODEL
*
* SMALL HIGH LEVEL HIGH LEVEL
* (NOVICE) LANGUAGE MODEL

DIRECT MANIPULATION III

* DESIGNER CHOICES

* HIGHER ORDER/SPECIALIZED LANGUAGES
* BUILD NEW MENTAL STRUCTURES IN USER

* RUBBER BAND GRAPHICS
* TURTLE GRAPHICS

DIRECT MANIPULATION IV

* HIGHER ORDER LANGUAGES:

* OVER SPECIALIZATION
* TASKS DO NOT DECOMPOSE
* EXAMPLES: LISP, UNIX
* LANGUAGE GROWS IN SIZE
* PLAYING A PHONOGRAPH TO HIT A NOTE

DIRECT MANIPULATION V

* LOW LEVEL LANGUAGES:

* MORE EFFORT TO PROGRAM
* DISGUISED AUTOMATION
* PLAYING A VIOLIN TO HIT A NOTE
* FOR EXPERTS: APL

DIRECT MANIPULATION VI

* LOW LEVEL MODEL:

* DEAL WITH ABSTRACTIONS
* REQUIRES EXPERTISE
* CAN PROMOTE LEARNING
* NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

* HIGH LEVEL MODEL

* DIRECT CONTROL
* LIMITS ABSTRACTION
* FLIGHT SIMULATOR
* MORE NOVICE ORIENTED

DIRECT MANIPULATION VII
VIRTUES

* IMMEDIACY OF FEEDBACK
* TRANSLATION OF INTENTIONS TO ACTIONS
* NOVICES CAN LEARN QUICKLY
* EXPERTS CAN WORK FAST
* EASE OF USE
* TRAIL AND ERROR LEARNING ENHANCED
* INSENSITIVE TO EXPERTISE

* PLAYING VIOLIN OR PUTTING ON RECORD

DIRECT MANIPULATION VIII
VICES

* REPETITIVE OPERATIONS DIFFICULT
* VARIABLES NOT EASY TO EXPRESS
* PROBLEMS WITH ACCURACY
* CANNOT INFER INTENTIONS
* EMPHASIZES CURRENT WAY OF THINKING
* SOME SACRIFICES OF REALITY
* MANIPULATION OF ACTIONS DIFFICULT
* MATCH WITH MENTAL MODEL REQUIRED
* INHIBITS EXPERTISE DEVELOPMENT
* DIRECTNESS IS TRADE OFF WITH GENERALITY AND ABSTRACTION

DIRECT MANIPULATION IX

* MEASURES:

* INTERNAL COHERENCE: COMPONENTS OF KNOWLEDGE ARE RELATED IN AN INTEGRATED STRUCTURE (CONSISTENCY OF SYNTAX).
* VALIDITY: USERS MENTAL MODEL PREDICTS SYSTEM OUTCOMES (INTERNAL MODEL DOES NOT HAVE TO BE THE SAME).

DIRECT MANIPULATION X

* MODEL TYPES:

* STRUCTURAL MODELS:

* SOMETIMES DIFFICULT TO LEARN (E.G. PUSH DOWN LISTS, SMALLTALK).

* FUNCTIONAL MODELS:

* MATCHES BETWEEN INPUT AND OUTPUT
* EASY TO LEARN

DIRECT MANIPULATION XI

* MODEL TYPES

* DISTRIBUTED MODELS:

* TRANSACTIONS AND STATE CHANGES (E.G. NETWORKS)
* MICRO LEARNING GOOD
* MACRO LEARNING DIFFICULT (E.G. HYPERTEXT)

* PROCEDURAL MODELS:

* PROGRAMMING LIKE (LOGO, TURTLE GRAPHICS).

DIRECT MANIPULATION XII

* DESIGN MATRIX
* COLUMNS:

* COGNITIVE PHYSICAL COMPUTER

* ROWS:

* CURRENT STATE
* CHANGE MECHANISM (CONTROL)
* SEQUENCES
* FINAL STATE
* INTENTIONS
* EVALUATION

DIRECT MANIPULATION XIII

* PILOT CAI LANGUAGE

* .T TYPE .A ANSWER
* .R REMARK .E END
* .M MATCH .J JUMP
* .JY IF YES .JN IF NO
* .U USE .C COMPUTE

DIRECT MANIPULATION XIV

* ABSTRACT REDUCTION OF CAI TASK

* WRITING LESSONS

* CREATING MATERIAL

* QUESTIONS
* ANSWERS
* EXPLANATIONS

* SETTING UP LOGIC

* ORGANIZING MODULES
* ORGANIZING LESSONS


GO TO START

VISIBILITY

* (c) copyright 1991 Murray Turoff

VISIBILITY

* VISIBLE LANGUAGE

* LAYOUT
* TYPOGRAPHY
* COLOR AND TEXTURE
* IMAGERY: SIGNS, ICONS, SYMBOLS
* ANIMATION
* SEQUENCING
* SOUND
* VISUAL IDENTITY

GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES

* SCREENS
* WINDOWS
* MENUS
* DIALOGUE BOXES
* ICONS AND SYMBOLS
* CURSORS

SCREEN AND GRID LAYOUT

* IDENTIFY COMPONENTS TO BE ARRANGED
* IDENTIFY DISPLAY SPACE CONSTRAINTS
* EXPLORE INTERRELATION OF COMPONENTS
* DEVELOP SINGLE BASIC LAYOUT SCHEMA
* DETERMINE BASIC UNIT (E.G. TEXT SIZE)
* DETERMINE HORIZONTAL SUBDIVISIONS
* DETERMINE VERTICAL SUBDIVISIONS
* DETERMINE ANGULAR LINES

GOALS OF SCREEN LAYOUT

* STRUCTURE DISPLAY BY CLARIFYING RELATION OF WINDOWS, MENUS, AND CONTROL PANELS
* ISOLATE CONTROL, DATA, AND STATUS OR FEEDBACK REGIONS WITHIN DISPLAY
* ENSURE THAT FREQUENT BUT TRANSIENT OBJECTS APPEAR IN PREDICTABLE LOCATIONS

2 AND 1/2 DIMENSIONS

* COLOR DEPTH
* DROP SHADOWS
* BEVELED EDGES
* HIGHLIGHTING AND LOW LIGHTING
* SHRINKING AND GROWING
* TEXTURE
* SIZE
* LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
* AERIAL PERSPECTIVE

ICONS

* SYNTACTIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES

* USE SIMPLE, CLEAR, UNITARY IMAGERY
* USE LARGE OBJECTS AND BOLD LINES
* MAINTAIN A FIGURAL DARK/LIGHT BALANCE
* STRIVE FOR BALANCE AND SYMMETRY
* KEEP IMAGES STYLISTICALLY CONSISTENT
* LIMIT VARIATION IN SIZE, SHAPE, ANGLE, LINE THICKNESS, AND WHITE SPACE

ICONS

* SEMANTIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES

* SELECT A DISTINCTIVE POINT OF VIEW
* EXPLOIT ARCHETYPAL FEATURES
* EXPLOIT USERS' KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD
* AVOID JARGON-ORIENTED "PUNS"
* RESPECT ESTABLISHED CONVENTIONS

ICONS

* PRAGMATIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES

* MAKE THE ICON APPEALING
* MAKE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES PROMINENT
* MAKE THE ICON READABLE AT A GLANCE
* MATCH THE ICON TO DISPLAY LIMITATIONS
* ENHANCE THE VIEWERS UNDERSTANDING OF THE ICON'S MESSAGE

ICONS

* ALGORITHM FOR ICON DESIGN

* LIST OBJECTS TO BE REPRESENTED
* GENERATE QUICK CONCEPT SKETCHES
* SORT SKETCHES BY VISUAL STYLE
* SELECT MOST PROMISING SKETCH SET
* CREATE LAYOUT GRID FOR SELECTED STYLE
* REFINE SELECTED ICONS BASED ON GRID

MENUS

* ATTRIBUTES: PRESENTATION, DURATION, AND NAVIGATION
* PULL-DOWN, POP-UP, STAY-UP, STATIC
* NORMAL, DEFAULT, SELECTED, DISABLED, ATTACHED MENUS AND DIALOGS
* DEPTH AND BREATH
* TREE, CHINESE, MULTIPLE CHOICE, ANSWER AHEAD

MENU LAYOUT

* MENU ITEMS GROUPED ACCORDING TO EASILY RECOGNIZABLE (I.E. LEARNABLE) LOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS: FREQUENCY, FUNCTION, NUMERIC, ALPHA
* EXTREME POSITIONS EASIER TO LEARN (TOP / BOTTOM / CORNERS), REMEMBER, AND LOCATE
* INTERIOR POSITIONS EASIER TO MOVE TO


GO TO START

USER CHARACTERISTICS

* OBJECTIVES OF USER INTERFACES

* ENJOYMENT
* ENABLING NEW SKILLS
* DELEGATION
* SAFETY
* DEVELOPMENT
* COMPUTING
* PRODUCTIVITY
* MANAGING COMPLEXITY
* RELIABILITY & SECURITY
* QUALITY

CONCEPTUAL OBSERVATIONS

* DESIGNER'S INFORMATION ABOUT THE USER AND HIS TASK IS MOSTLY IMAGINATION
* USER INTERFACE INFORMATION FLOW ALONE IS TOO LOW TO MAKE INTERACTION SATISFACTORY (DIRECT MANIPULATION LIMIT)
* SOURCE OF GREATER INFORMATION: MENTAL MODELS AND PROGRAMS
* MENTAL MODELS AND PROGRAMS ARE NOT EQUIVALENT

USER PROBLEMS I

* COGNITIVE DISSONANCE: REGRET FOR A NON CHOSEN ALTERNATIVE.
* DIFFICULT TO JUDGE INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS AS A RESULT USERS ADAPT IF THEY ARE MOTIVATED TO.
* HOMEOSTASIS: SYSTEM EASIER TO USE IT WILL BE USED FOR COMPLEX THINGS.

USER PROBLEMS II

* SATISFYING: FLEXIBLE SYSTEMS WILL PERMIT USERS TO ADOPT NON-OPTIMAL STRATEGIES EASIER TO LEARN.
* HAWTHORN EFFECT
* SKILL DEVELOPMENT MAY ELIMINATE KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT: TYPIST DOES NOT KNOW WHERE KEY IS.

WHORFIAN HYPOTHESIS

* HOW WE PERCEIVE AND THINK ABOUT THE WORLD DEPENDS ON THE LANGUAGE AVAILABLE TO US.

* ARABS HAVE MANY WORDS FOR CAMELS, ESKIMOS FOR SNOW, ENGLISH FOR VEHICLES
* ONLY ONE WORD FOR BUG

* STILL LOCAL PROBLEM

* INTERFACE DESIGN OFTEN BOTTOM UP
* LIMITED DESIGNS CAMOUFLAGED BY ADDING NEW FEATURES
* FEATURE TICKING DESIGN

MYERS-BRIGGS PERSONALITY TYPES

* JUDGING/PERCEIVING

* JUDGING TYPE MAKES DECISIONS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE
* PERCEIVING TYPE PUTS IT OFF UNTIL ALL INFORMATION IN
* JUDGING TYPE LOOKS FOR GOALS
* PERCEIVING PERSON INTERESTED IN PROCESS

MYERS-BRIGGS PERSONALITY TYPES

* SENSING/INTUITING

* SENSING TYPES RELY ON EXTERNAL STIMULI
* INTUITING TYPES MAKE DECISIONS WITHOUT EXTERNAL STIMULI
* SENSING NEED TO INTERACT
* INTUITING LIKE TO SEND WORK TO BE BATCHED
* SENSING WANTS EVERYTHING EXPLICIT
* INTUITING LIKES TO USE IMAGINATION

MYERS-BRIGGS PERSONALITY TYPES

* THINKING/FEELING

* THINKING NEEDS EXPLICIT LOGIC FOR DOING SOMETHING
* FEELING USE INTUITION
* THINKING READS HELPS AND DOCUMENTATION BEFORE DOING
* INTUITION MORE INCLINED TO TRIAL AND ERROR

GOOD DESIGNING

* A DESIGN SHOULD BE TASK SPECIFIC
* A DESIGN SHOULD HAVE PREDICTABLE PERFORMANCE
* DESIGN SHOULD BE ITERATIVE
* DESIGN HAS MORE CONTROL THAN EVALUATION, INITIAL DESIGN MUST BE GOOD
* A DESIGN SHOULD BE SIMPLE
* THE GOLDEN RULE IS THAT THERE ARE NO GOLDEN RULES - SHAW


GO TO START

HELP

* (c) copyright 1991 Murray Turoff

HELP I

* WHERE AM I?
* WHAT HAPPENED?
* HOW CAN I DO THIS?
* WHAT CAN I DO NEXT?
* WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
* HOW SHOULD I RESPOND?
* HOW CAN I CHANGE THIS?
* IS THE SYSTEM DESTROYING MY FILES?
* WHAT IS IT DOING WITH MY INPUTS?
* HOW LONG IS THIS GOING TO TAKE?
* WHY DIDN'T THAT WORK?

HELP II

* HELP TYPES

* STATIC HELP (DIRECTORY)
* DYNAMIC (RESPONDS TO SITUATION)
* DIALOGUE HELP
* MULTIPLE LEVELS OF HELP
* MENU HELP
* HYPERTEXT HELP
* SYSTEM INITIATED HELP

HELP III: COGNITIVE FACTORS I

* SHORT TERM MEMORY
* PEOPLE GENERALIZE FROM WHAT THEY ALREADY KNOW (STIMULUS GENERALIZATION)
* PEOPLE ACQUIRE SKILLS BETTER IF DISTRIBUTED OVER TIME

HELP IV: COGNITIVE FACTORS II

* LEARNING SOMETHING NEW THAT IS SIMILAR TO SOMETHING ALREADY KNOWN RESULTS IN INTERFERENCE
* WHEN PROBLEM SOLVING PEOPLE DO BETTER IF THEY BREAK THE PROBLEM INTO SMALLER PARTS
* WHEN UNDERSTANDING LANGUAGE, MEANING (SEMANTICS) GENERALLY PREVAILS OVER THE EXACT FORM (SYNTAX)

HELP V

* MINIMUM HELP FUNCTIONS

* SELECT LIST OF TOPICS
* SCROLL CURRENT HELP
* NEXT TOPIC IN ORDER
* PREVIOUS TOPIC
* CANCEL HELP

HELP VI

* CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH HELP IS NEEDED

* SEQUENCES OR SCREENS MORE THAN FIVE
* COMPLEX SCREENS LEARNED IN ONE SESSION
* DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS RESEMBLE EACH OTHER
* COMBINE DIFFERENT STEPS TOGETHER
* WHERE EXACT FORMAT IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN CONTENT

HELP VII

* USUAL MAJOR PROBLEMS WITH HELP

* DIFFICULT SWITCHING BETWEEN HELP AND APPLICATIONS
* DON'T PROVIDE SPECIFIC INFORMATION DESIRED
* NOT AVAILABLE WHEN NEEDED
* INFORMATION NOT ACCURATE OR COMPLETE
* DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND
* HELP SYSTEM CONFUSING TO USE


GO TO START PROPORTIONS

* (c) copyright 1991 Murray Turoff

PROPORTIONS I

* CLASSICAL

* 1:1 SQUARE
* 1:1.414 SQUARE ROOT OF TWO
* 1:1.618 GOLDEN RECTANGLE
* 1:1.732 SQUARE ROOT OF THREE
* 1:2 DOUBLE SQUARE

* EXAMPLES

* 1:1.29 SHEET OF PAPER
* 1:1.33 TELEVISION SCREEN
* 1:1.50 35 MM SLIDE, APPLE SCREEN
* 1:1.77 HDTV

PROPORTIONS II

* SQUARE

* ATTENTION GETTING
* STABLE, PERMANENCE
* DYNAMIC ON DIAGONAL

* DIAMOND

* SPECIAL BOOKS (E.G. ART)

PROPORTIONS III

* SQUARE-ROOT OF TWO RECTANGLE

* INSCRIBED SQUARE NATURAL DIVISION
* DIVIDED IN TWO RESULTING RECTANGLES SAME PROPORTION

* THEREFORE IDEAL FOR BOOKS

* EUROPEAN INTERNATIONAL PAPER SIZE
* BOOKLET, MAGAZINE, LETTERHEAD, POSTERS

PROPORTIONS IV

* GOLDEN PROPORTION

* ARTISTIC AND ITERATIVE
* INSCRIBED SQUARE PRODUCES ALSO GOLDEN RECTANGLE

* REFLECTS GROWTH PATTERNS IN PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE
* ARCHITECTURE, ART WORKS
* VENUS'S NAVAL TO HEIGHT

PROPORTIONS V

* SQUARE ROOT OF THREE

* DISTINCTIVE FROM THE OTHERS
* NARROWER

* DOUBLE SQUARE

* TATAMI MAT IN JAPAN
* ALSO DISTINCTIVE

* DISTINCTIVE = USER CAN DISTINGUISH
* MORE ELONGATED RECTANGLES CAN NOT BE DISTINGUISH

PROPORTIONS VI

* MARGINS USED TO ALLOW TRANSFER BETWEEN MEDIUMS, WINDOWS, WORKSPACES
* USE OF DISTINCTIVE PROPORTIONS CAN BE MORE VISUALLY PLEASING
* DISTINCTIVE PROPORTIONS TO CODE WINDOW TYPES
* CONSTRAINED BY RESOLUTION OF SCREEN

PROPORTIONS VII

* MARGINS USED TO FACILITATE TRANSFER BETWEEN MEDIUMS
* TEXT NEEDS BREATHING SPACES, OR MARGINS WITHIN TEXT AREA
* MARGINS BETWEEN PARAGRAPHS = ONE LINE
* SPACE BEFORE AND AFTER HEADINGS

PROPORTIONS VIII

* 100 PIXELS PER INCH = MINIMUM FOR STANDARD PAGE
* 1024 PIXELS = 10.24 INCHES < 11 INCHES
* 40 TO 60 CHARACTERS DESIRABLE TEXT LINE RANGE
* AVERAGE MAXIMUM READING SPEED = 53 CHARACTERS / LINE
* COLUMNS SEPARATE BY "GUTTERS" AT LEAST 2 CHARACTER SPACES (1 TO 2 PICAS)
* 2 TO 5 COLUMNS PER PAGE OR SCREEN, VERTICAL OR HORIZONTAL

PROPORTIONS IX

* HORIZONTAL GRID LINES BREAK UP COLUMNS INTO ZONES FOR FOOTERS, PRIMARY TITLING, AND MAIN TEXT.
* SCREENS APPEAR LESS COMPLICATED WHEN SINGLE THIN LINE SEPARATES WINDOWS FROM EACH OTHER, NOT TWO LINES AND SPACE.
* CHARACTER DENSITY IDEAL AT ABOUT 30%, NOT MORE THAN 50%.

WINDOW CONTROLS I

* CLOSE
* OPEN
* MINIMIZE
* MAXIMIZE
* MOVE
* REFRESH DISPLAY
* END APPLICATION
* REVERT TO PREVIOUS

WINDOW CONTROLS II

* SIZE 2 DIMENSIONS
* SYSTEM MENU
* SCROLL BARS
* ZOOM IN/OUT
* PAN & CYCLE
* EXPOSE, HIDE
* VIRTUAL SPACES

* APPLICATION FUNCTIONALITY STILL UNCLEAR

WINDOW CONTROLS

* POSSIBLE APPLICATION FUNCTIONS

* MARK, IDENTIFY
* TRANSFER, MOVE
* COPY
* PROCESS CONTROL
* ROLE CONTROL
* FORM CONTROL
* TRACKING
* OPERATING SYSTEM
* COMMUNICATION SYSTEM


GO TO START COLOR

* (c) copyright 1991 Murray Turoff

COLOR I

* HUE = SPECTRAL WAVELENGTH AND RESULTING COLOR
* VALUE = RELATIVE AMOUNT OF LIGHTNESS OR DARKNESS
* CHROME = PURITY OF COLOR FROM GRAY TO MOST VIVID (SATURATION)

COLOR II

* BENEFITS

* CALL ATTENTION
* IDENTIFY ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURES AND PROCESSES
* PORTRAY OBJECTS REALISTICALLY
* DEPICT LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF IDEAS
* PORTRAY TIME AND PROGRESS
* INCREASE APPEAL, BELIEVABILITY
* EXPRESS EMOTION
* INCREASE NUMBER OF CODING DIMENSIONS

COLOR III

* DISADVANTAGES

* MORE EXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT
* USER COLOR DEFICIENT VISION
* MAY CAUSE VISUAL FATIGUE
* MAY CAUSE AFTERIMAGES
* MAY CONTRIBUTE TO CONFUSION (BLUE = DEATH)
* DISCIPLINARY, CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
* CONFUSING GUIDELINES

COLOR IV

* USE A MAXIMUM OF 5 +- 2 COLORS
* USE SPECTRAL ORDER IN COLOR CODING

* ROY G BIV
* RED, ORANGE, YELLOW, GREEN, BLUE, INDIGO, VIOLET
* FRONT = RED
* MIDDLE = GREEN
* BACK = BLUE

COLOR V

* USE FOVEAL (CENTRAL) AND PERIPHERAL COLORS APPROPRIATELY
* BLUE FOR LARGE AREAS, NOT LINES OR TEXT
* RED AND GREEN IN CENTER OF VISUAL FIELD, NOT EDGES
* USE BLACK, WHITE, YELLOW, AND BLUE IN PERIPHERAL
* DO NOT USE ADJACENT COLORS THAT DIFFER IN BLUE, BLACK, YELLOW, (LINE BECOMES FUZZY)
* USE ADJACENT COLORS THAT DIFFER IN HUE AND VALUE

COLOR VI

* USE COLORS THAT EXHIBIT MINIMUM SHIFT IN COLOR/SIZE IF THE COLORS CHANGE IN SIZE IN THE IMAGERY
* SIZE INFLUENCES PERCEPTION OF VALUE AND CHROME
* LIGHT TEXT, THIN LINES, SMALL SHAPES IN WHITE, YELLOW, RED ON MEDIUM-DARK BACKGROUNDS (BLUE, GREEN, RED, DARK GRAY) FOR DARK VIEWING SITUATIONS

COLOR VII

* USE DARK TEXT, THING LINES AND SMALL SHAPES (BLACK, VIOLET) ON LIGHT BACKGROUNDS, LIGHT VIEWING SITUATIONS.
* USE HIGHEST CONTRAST FOR TEXT TYPE

COLOR VIII

* SIMULTANEOUS USE OF HIGH-CHROME SPECTRALLY EXTREME COLORS CAUSE VIBRATIONS, ILLUSIONS OF SHADOWS, AND AFTER IMAGES

* RED / GREEN
* BLUE / YELLOW
* GREEN / BLUE
* RED / BLUE

COLOR IX

* USE FAMILIAR, CONSISTENT COLOR CODINGS

* RED = STOP, DANGER, HOT, FIRE
* YELLOW = CAUTION, SLOW, TEST
* GREEN = OK, CLEAR, VEGETATION, SAFETY
* BLUE = COLD, WATER, CALM, SKY
* WARM COLORS = ACTION, RESPONSE REQUIRED
* COOL COLORS = STATUS, REMOTENESS
* GRAYS, WHITE, BLUE = NEUTRALITY

COLOR X

* CULTURAL DIFFERENCES OF BLUE

* MOVIE AUDIENCES: TENDERNESS, PORNOGRAPHY
* FINANCIAL MANAGERS: RELIABILITY
* HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS: DEATH
* POWER INDUSTRY: COOLNESS, WATER

COLOR XI

* HIGH ILLUMINATION: HOT, ACTIVE, COMIC
* LOW ILLUMINATION: EMOTIONAL, TENSE, TRAGIC
* HIGH CHROME: EMOTIONAL, TENSE, HOT, COMIC
* WARM HUES (RED, ORANGE, AND YELLOW) ACTIVE, COMEDY, RECREATION
* COOL HUES (GREEN, BLUE, VIOLET, PURPLE, GRAY): TRAGEDY, ROMANCE, EFFICIENCY, WORK

COLOR XII

* USE SAME COLOR FOR GROUPING RELATED ELEMENTS
* USERS PERCEIVE COLOR RELATIONSHIPS OVER TIME
* EXAMPLE: COMMAND AND CONTROL COLORS IN MENUS NOT TO BE USED FOR STATUS CODING IN WORK AREAS
* USE HIGH VALUE, HIGH CHROME COLORS TO ATTRACT ATTENTION

COLOR SLIDE XIII

* USE BRIGHTER COLORS FOR OLDER VIEWERS
* IDEAL SITUATION ALLOWS USER TO DO COLOR TAILORING
* USE REDUNDANT CODING OF SHAPE AS WELL AS COLOR
* USE COLOR TO ENHANCE BLACK AND WHITE INFORMATION

COLOR XIV

* PRIOR NOTES NOT SUFFICIENT FOR COMPLEX USES OF COLOR
* NUMEROUS CONSIDERATIONS FOR COMPLICATED DIAGRAMS AND THREE DIMENSIONAL REPRESENTATIONS
* ANIMATION AND AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF PICTURES
* ARTISTIC APPLICATIONS


GO TO START HYPERTEXT

* (c) copyright 1991 Murray Turoff

HYPERTEXT MORPHOLOGY

* GILFORD'S THEORY OF THE INTELLECT:
* COGNITION CONVERGENT DIVERGENT
* PRODUCTION PRODUCTION
* HYPERTEXT:
* NODES LINKS LINKS
* DETAIL SPECIFICATION ELABORATION
* COLLECTION MEMBERSHIP OPPOSITION
* PROPOSITION ASSOCIATION SPECULATION
* SUMMARY PATH BRANCH
* ISSUE ALTERNATIVE LATERAL
* OBSERVATION INFERENCE EXTRAPOLATION

HYPERTEXT NODES I

* DETAIL

* FACT, DEFINITION, REFERENCE

* COLLECTION

* GROUP, HEADING, AGGREGATION, SET

* PROPOSITION

* ASSUMPTION, BELIEF, AXIOM, LAW

HYPERTEXT NODES II

* SUMMARY

* GENERALIZATION, OVERVIEW, TEMPLATE

* ISSUE

* QUESTION, PROBLEM, CONCERN, VISION

* OBSERVATION

* CONCLUSION, DECISION, ACTION, POLICY

HYPERTEXT CONVERGENT LINKS

* MEMBERSHIP

* NAMING, SUBSET, ASSEMBLE

* ASSOCIATION

* SIMILARITY, CORRELATION, CONCURRENCE

* PATH

* SEQUENCE, TRAIL, DOCUMENT

* ALTERNATIVE

* OPTION, REVISION, CHOICE

* INFERENCE

* IMPLICATION, CAUSE, CONCLUSION

HYPERTEXT DIVERGENT LINK I

* ELABORATION

* DETAIL, FACT, FOOTNOTE

* OPPOSITION

* CONFLICT, REFUTE, CON

* SPECULATION

* CONJECTURE, TENTATIVE, VAGUE

HYPERTEXT DIVERGENT LINK II

* BRANCH

* SUBSECTION, SPLIT, OFFSHOOT

* LATERAL

* DEVIATION, SHIFT, NOVELTY, DIVERGENCE

* EXTRAPOLATION

* GOAL, IDEA, QUESTION

HYPERTEXT MORPHOLOGY

* A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ALL NODES AND LINKS
* REASONS:

* COMMON IMPLEMENTATION MODEL
* POWERFUL SEMANTIC AND NETWORK ANALYSIS POSSIBILITIES
* COLLABORATION FOR CREATION OF KNOWLEDGE BASES

HYPERTEXT MORPHOLOGY

* OTHER SEMANTIC MODELS CAN BE MAPPED IN
* CARLSON & RAM/THEORY OF INTELLECT
* STAKEHOLDER COLLECTION
* OBJECTIVE OBSERVATION
* STRATEGY PROPOSITION
* CONTROL PROPOSITION

HYPERTEXT TEMPLATES

* TASK TEMPLATE:

* PROPOSED TASK (PROPOSITION)

* SPECIFICATION LINK

* RESOURCES REQUIRED (OBSERVATION)

* INFERENCE LINK

* EMPLOYEE UTILIZATION (INFERENCE)

* OPPOSITION LINK

* EMPLOYEE UTILIZATION (INFERENCE)

* (IN DIFFERENT TASK TEMPLATE)

HYPERTEXT MORPHOLOGY

* ATTRIBUTES
* STRENGTH OF A LINK
* WHO CREATED A LINK OR NODE
* LEVEL OF AGREEMENT
* POPULARITY
* WHO UTILIZED A LINK, PATH, AND/OR NODE

HYPERTEXT MORPHOLOGY

* ANALYSIS APPROACHES

* DIVERGENT LINKS AS CUT POINTS TO FIND SUBGRAPHS
* LATERAL LINKS FOR INDEXES
* PATH AND BRANCH LINKS FOR DOCUMENTS
* COLLECTIONS FOR HEADINGS

COLLABORATIVE MEMORY

* HEADING RECORD MODEL
* AUTOMATIC FORGETTING

* AGREEMENT
* POPULARITY

* BASED UPON ACTIONS OF USERS

EXPERIMENT ON NODE CLASSIFICATION

* ARTICLE IN ATLANTIC MONTHLY: THE CHOLESTEROL MYTH
* 110 PARAGRAPHS UTILIZED
* 32 SUBJECTS
* OBJECT: CLASSIFY NODES

EXPERIMENT ON NODE CLASSIFICATION

* SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL: .05
* 76 NODES OUT OF 110 CLASSIFIED WITH NO CONFUSION
* SUBJECT SELF RATING OF ENGLISH RESOLVED 24 MORE NODES
* INTERNAL CONFUSION RESOLVED BY DOMINANCE FOR 5 MORE NODES
* ONLY 5 REMAINING OUT OF 110 EXHIBITED EXTERNAL CONFUSION

EXPERIMENT ON NODE CLASSIFICATION

* INTERNAL CONFUSION:

* PARAGRAPH USED AS NODE CONTAINS MORE THAN ONE CONCEPT

* EXTERNAL CONFUSION:

* CLASSIFICATION OF NODE TYPE DEPENDENT UPON LINKS TO IT

* EXAMPLES:

* SUMMARY VS. DETAIL
* OBSERVATION VS. PROPOSITION

HYPERTEXT MORPHOLOGY

* OBSERVATIONS
* HYPERTEXT AS A DATA STRUCTURE FOR DEALING WITH EQUIVOCALITY
* REDUCTION OF FUNCTIONAL AND SYSTEMS OPACITY
* COLLABORATIVE INTELLIGENCE FOR THE GATHERING AND USE OF KNOWLEDGE


GO TO START COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATIONS

* (c) copyright 1991 Murray Turoff

COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATIONS

* ASYNCHRONOUS GROUP COMMUNICATIONS
* METHODS:

* DELPHI

* PAPER AND PENCIL
* HUMAN INFORMATION PROCESSING
* ROUNDS AND DELAYS

* COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATIONS

* PHONE LINES & NETWORKS
* COMPUTER PROCESSING
* HUMAN ROLES

ASYNCHRONOUS GROUP COMMUNICATIONS

* CHARACTERISTICS

* TEXT AND GRAPHICS
* INFORMATION STRUCTURING
* COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS
* SELF ACTIVATION
* SELF SELECTION

ASYNCHRONOUS GROUP COMMUNICATIONS

* ADVANTAGES

* INDIVIDUAL PROBLEM SOLVING
* EXPLORATION
* EQUAL PARTICIPATION
* COMPLETENESS
* REFLECTION
* INCUBATION
* CREATIVITY
* SYNERGY

ASYNCHRONOUS GROUP COMMUNICATIONS

* DISADVANTAGES

* OVERLOAD

* FILTERING, ORGANIZATION, RETRIEVAL

* FLAMING

* PARALINGUISTIC CUES, FOCUSING

* SYNCHRONIZATION

* MODERATION & PROTOCOLS

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING PHASES I

* PROBLEM RECOGNITION

* PROBLEM SPACE
* ISSUES

* STRATEGY FORMULATION

* GOALS & OBJECTIVES
* POLICIES

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING PHASE II

* GENERATION

* CRITERIA
* ALTERNATIVES
* BENEFITS & RISKS

* EVALUATION

* ESTIMATIONS
* VOTING & MODELS
* DISAGREEMENT EXPLORATION

INDIVIDUAL PROBLEM SOLVING PHASES

* IDENTIFICATION
* EXPLORATION
* DEVELOPMENT
* SPECIFICATION
* SELECTION

PROBLEM SOLVING META PROCESSES I

* REGULATION

* SEQUENCING
* ITERATION
* SYNCHRONIZATION
* PARTICIPATION
* ASSIGNMENT
* TRACKING

PROBLEM SOLVING META PROCESS II

* FACILITATION

* ORGANIZATION
* SUMMARIZATION
* FILTERING
* EXPOSURE
* INTEGRATION

OBJECTS OF DISCOURSE

* PROBLEMS, ISSUES, QUESTIONS
* GOALS, OBJECTIVES, PLANS
* STRATEGIES, POLICIES, AGENDAS
* CONCERNS, CRITERIA ARGUMENTS
* ASSUMPTIONS, VIEWPOINTS
* OPINIONS, VALUES, INTERESTS
* CONSEQUENCES, SCENARIOS, IMPACTS
* TRADEOFFS, COMPROMISE, PROPOSALS
* SOLUTIONS, DECISIONS, PROJECTS
* TASKS, ALLOCATIONS, POSSIBILITIES

GROUP DECISION SUPPORT EXAMPLES

* ALTERNATIVE GENERATION
* STANDARD SETTING
* GOAL AND OBJECTIVE SETTING
* PROJECT FORMULATION
* PROJECT STATUS TRACKING
* PROBLEM EXAMINATION
* RISK DETERMINATION
* MODEL BUILDING
* COLLABORATIVE WRITING

GDSS TOOL EXAMPLES

* VOTING SCALES

* RANK ORDERING
* COMPARATIVE ORDERING
* INTERVAL & RATIO SCALING

* DECISION TREES
* INFLUENCE MATRICES
* RISK ANALYSIS
* DECISION TABLES
* STAKEHOLDER ROLES
* GAMING

LIST GATHERING ACTIVITY I

* EXAMPLES

* ALTERNATIVES
* CRITERIA
* FACTORS

* CONTROL

* OPEN AND CLOSE LIST
* COMMENTS ON ITEMS
* PRO AND CON COMMENTS
* VOTING PHASE
* SELECTION PHASE

LIST GATHERING ACTIVITY II

* NOTIFICATIONS

* NEW ENTRIES
* STATUS CHANGES
* VOTES REQUIRED
* VOTES VIEWABLE

COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATIONS

* EARLY SYSTEMS

* MAILBOX, DELPHI CONFERENCE, EMISARI, PREMIS, FORUM, EIES, CONFER, KOM, HUB, PARTI, NOTEPAD, EQUAL

* CURRENT SYSTEMS

* GRAND, TOOLS, COSMOS, SUPER COM, AMIGO, VAXNOTES, EIES 2, TEIES, SAM

CMC NAMES I

* "A ROSE IS A ROSE"
* COORDINATION SYSTEMS
* COMPUTER CONFERENCING
* COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS
* COMPUTERIZED CONFERENCING
* GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (GDSS)
* COMPUTER SUPPORTED COOPERATIVE WORK (CSCW)

CMC NAMES II

* ELECTRONIC MEETING SYSTEMS (EMS)
* ELECTRONIC MAIL SYSTEMS (EMS)
* BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS
* HYPERTEXT SYSTEMS
* TELECONFERENCING
* MESSAGE SYSTEMS
* GROUPWARE
* TEAMWARE

COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATIONS

* OBJECTIVES

* FACILITATION OF GROUP ACTIVITIES
* TAILORING COMMUNICATION STRUCTURES AND PROTOCOLS AROUND THE APPLICATION AND THE GROUP
* COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE

* CAN THE GROUP PERFORM BETTER THAN THE BEST MEMBER ACTING ALONE (SPEED AND QUALITY)

CMC ROLES I

* COMMENT, MESSAGE, OR ACTIVITY

* AUTHOR
* SENDER
* RECEIVER
* APPENDER
* MODIFIER
* REPLYER
* RESPONDER

CMC ROLES II

* GROUP OR CONFERENCE

* OWNER
* MEMBER
* MONITOR
* EDITOR
* INDEXER
* OBSERVER
* CONTRIBUTOR
* ORGANIZER
* MASQUERADER

CMC OPEN ENDED CONCEPTS I

* ACCESS

* PRIVILEGES
* TICKETS
* ROLES

* TRACKING

* ACTIVITIES
* NOTIFICATIONS

* STRUCTURED INFORMATION

* FORMS
* INDEXES

CMC OPEN ENDED CONCEPTS II

* SHARING

* GROUPS
* CONFERENCE STRUCTURES

* INTERFACE

* OBJECTS AND GENERIC COMMANDS
* DEFAULTS

* INTEGRATION

* EXTERNAL ENTRY

CMC OBJECT STRUCTURE I

* MEMBER

* PERSONAL INDEXES
* FILTERS
* NOTIFICATIONS FILE

* GROUP

* SHARED INDEXES & LISTS
* NOTIFICATIONS
* MAIL
* MESSAGES

CMC OBJECT STRUCTURE II

* DIRECTORY

* MEMBERS

* CONFERENCES OWNED

* GROUPS

* MEMBERSHIP
* CONFERENCES SHARED

* INDEXES

* MEMBER INTERESTS
* GROUP TOPICS
* CONFERENCE TOPICS

CMC OBJECT STRUCTURE III

* CONFERENCES

* MEMBERSHIP
* COMMENTS

* MESSAGES
* COMMENTS

* ROOTS & REPLIES
* APPENDAGES
* ATTACHMENTS
* ACTIVITIES

* MEMBERSHIP
* RESPONSES

CMC PRIVILEGES

* FUNDAMENTAL

* CREATE, REPLACE, READ, COPY, REFERENCE, USE, DELETE

* SPECIFIC

* SOLICIT, RENDER, REPLY, RESPOND, ASSIGN, TAKE, VIEW, APPROVE, MODIFY, AUTHOR, JOIN, SPONSOR, INDEX, TARGET, OWN, BURN, TARGET, PERFORM, SYSTEM, ADMIN

CMC ACTIVITY EXAMPLES

* GENERIC:

* DO ACTIVITY

* SPECIFIC:

* READ DOCUMENT
* SELECT OPTIONS
* VOTE ISSUE
* FILLOUT FORM
* ANSWER QUESTION
* TAKE ASSIGNMENT
* EXECUTE PROGRAM

COMMUNICATIONS AS AN INTERFACE I

* COMMUNICATION AS A METAPHOR

* MESSAGE HUMAN
* MESSAGE COMPUTER
* DO ACTIVITY

* COMMUNITY OF USERS
* CAPTURE OF EXPERT KNOWLEDGE

* USER CREATED FORMS
* SPECIALIZED ACTIVITIES

* TRACKING AND RESULTS

* NOTIFICATIONS
* RETURNED DATA & TEXT

COMMUNICATIONS AS AN INTERFACE II

* LIST PROCESSING OBJECTIVE

* MARKED ITEMS
* REACTIVE ACTIONS
* DIRECT MANIPULATION
* BACKTRACKING

CMC NOTIFICATIONS

* MEMBER GENERATED

* COMPOSED
* CANNED
* APPENDED

* SYSTEM GENERATED

* ESTABLISHMENTS
* STATUS CHANGES
* ACTION ALERTS
* ACTIVITY TRACKING

TICKETS

* SPECIFIC EXCEPTION PRIVILEGES GRANTED TO INDIVIDUAL BY ISSUER
* MAY BE CONDITIONAL

* ONE TIME, TIME INTERVAL, OR UNLIMITED

* MASTER SERVER VERIFIES WITH ISSUER DB SERVER VERIFIES ISSUER'S PRIVILEGES

COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE COMPONENTS

* GROUP DECISION SUPPORT AIDS
* COMMUNICATION STRUCTURES
* HUMAN ROLES
* COLLABORATIVE EXPERT SYSTEMS

* COGNITIVE HYPERTEXT LINKAGES
* VOTING & SCALING MODELS
* ADAPTIVE CONTENT
* INTEGRATED IN GROUP PROCESSES
* GROUP MEMORY

CMC RESEARCH EIES2

* FOUNDATIONS FOR RESEARCH
* REAL WORLD OPERATION
* PROTOTYPING & FIELD TRIALS
* EVALUATION & FEEDBACK
* EVOLUTION OF TOOLS & DESIGN

CMC RESEARCH

* APPLICATIONS

* COLLABORATIVE SYSTEM
* GDSS
* COLLABORATIVE HYPERTEXT
* VIRTUAL CLASSROOM
* GROUP DESIGN

CMC OBJECTS

* OBJECTS

* DIRECTORY

* MEMBER
* GROUP
* CONFERENCE

* COMMENT
* ACTIVITY

* NOTIFICATION
* MAIL AND MESSAGE

CMC ACTIONS

* ACTIONS

* VIEW
* FIND
* REVIEW
* CREATE
* MODIFY
* DO
* ORGANIZE

CMC MODIFIERS

* TYPE EXAMPLES
* STATUS NEW, UNDONE, MARKED
* ROLES OWNER, MONITOR
* RECEPTION URGENT, PERSONAL
* DISTRIBUTION PRIVATE, PUBLIC
* TYPES DOCUMENT, GRAPHIC
* PARTS HEADING, ABSTRACT
* ORDERING TIME, AUTHOR, KEYS

CMC INTERFACE STRATEGY

* OBJECT CHOICE
* MODIFIER CHOICE
* ACTION CHOICE
* INTERACTION STATE
* LIST TO PROCESS
* GENERIC COMMANDS
* DEFAULTS
* PROCESS/REACTIVE MENUS
* ONE LEVEL INTERACTION

CMC IMPLICIT STRUCTURE

* LISTS

* WAITING ITEMS
* ACCEPTED ITEMS
* ACTIVITIES TO DO
* ACTIVITIES DONE

* INDEXES

* KEYS
* CATEGORIES
* COMMANDS
* SUBSTITUTIONS
* TOPICS & INTERESTS

CMC MODIFIERS

* PRIMARY CATEGORIES
* NEW URGENT
* OLD BUSINESS
* PRIVATE PERSONAL
* PUBLIC INQUIRY
* ROOT ASSIGNMENT
* REPLIES DECISION

CMC NOTIFICATIONS

* ALERTS & CLOSURE
* DIRECT MANIPULATION
* RECALL (DATABASE)
* SELECTIVITY & TAILORING
* ACTIVITY TRACKING
* CANNED (AGREE, DISAGREE)

CMC ACTIVITIES

* TYPE E.G.
* APPENDAGES DELTA EDITS
* CONDITIONAL DOCUMENT
* RESPONSE QUESTION
* CHOICE VOTE
* GENERATION ROUTE MESSAGE
* FUNCTIONAL PROGRAM

CONFERENCE TYPES

* DISCUSSION
* SEMINAR (VIRTUAL CLASSROOM)
* INFORMATION EXCHANGE
* PROJECT MANAGEMENT
* COLLABORATIVE COMPOSITION
* DATA COLLECTION & VALIDATION
* SIMULATION GAME

CONFERENCE TAILORING

* MEMBERSHIP & ROLES
* DISCUSSION LEVELS
* COMMENT SIZE
* ACTIVITIES ALLOWED
* NOTIFICATIONS USED
* SPECIALIZED FORMS
* INDEX STRUCTURE

* FIX OR FREE
* CATEGORIES
* COMMANDS

CMC OBJECTIVES

* EVERYDAY FREQUENT USER
* OVERCOME INFORMATION OVERLOAD
* USER & GROUP TAILORABILITY
* INTEGRATION
* LEARNING AS NEEDED
* POWER USERS & GROUPS
* COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE

GENERIC COMMANDS

* TYPE SPECIFIC EXAMPLES
* VIEW LIST, SCAN, GET
* FIND
* REVIEW
* CREATE REPLY, NOTIFY, SEND
* MODIFY EDIT, CHANGE
* DO READ, VOTE, ANSWER
* ORGANIZE INDEX, MOVE, COPY

CMC INTERFACE APPROACH

* CHOOSE:

* OBJECT TYPE
* MODIFIER FOR SUBSET
* ACTION-WORK MODE

* RESULTS:

* LIST OF ITEMS
* REACTIVE ACTION MENU

COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE

* CAPTURING INDIVIDUAL KNOWLEDGE
* FORMING A GROUP SYNTHESIS
* FEEDBACK TO GROUP
* EVALUATION BY THE GROUP
* EVOLUTION AND ADOPTION BY GROUP
* USE BY THE GROUP FOR THE GROUP AND THIS GDSS SHALL NOT PERISH
* INTEGRATION OF COMPUTER RESOURCES
* POWER TO THE GROUP
* LET 1000 APPLICATIONS BLOOM

COORDINATION THEORY I

* EVERYTHING THAT IS ADDED WHEN A GROUP RATHER THAN AN INDIVIDUAL CARRIES OUT A PROCESS:

* PROBLEM SOLVING
* PROBLEM EXPLORATION
* ACTIVITY TRACKING
* PLANNING
* DECISION MAKING

* INFORMATION SYSTEM SUPPORT

* INFORMATION SCIENCE

COORDINATION THEORY II

* COMMUNICATIONS

* COMPUTER SCIENCE
* COMMUNICATIONS SCIENCE

* GROUP DYNAMICS

* SOCIOLOGY

* ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS

* MANAGEMENT SCIENCES

* COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR

* PSYCHOLOGY

COORDINATION THEORY III

* SOCIAL CHOICE AND MOTIVATION THEORY

* ECONOMICS
* POLITICAL SCIENCE

* COMPLEX SYSTEMS BEHAVIOR

* ENGINEERING
* SYSTEMS SCIENCE

* HYPERTEXT, PARALLEL SYSTEMS, AI, EXPERT SYSTEMS, STRUCTURAL MODELING

* COMPUTER SCIENCE
* ENGINEERING

COORDINATION THEORY IV

* NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUES, DELPHI METHOD, CONFLICT RESOLUTION

* POLICY SCIENCE
* INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT
* PLANNING SCIENCE

* SCALING, SUBJECTIVE JUDGMENT, UTILITY THEORY & GAMING

* PSYCHOLOGY
* SOCIOLOGY
* MANAGEMENT SCIENCE


GO TO START FUTURE RESEARCH

* (c) copyright 1991 Murray Turoff

FUTURE RESEARCH

* PROTOTYPING FACILITIES

* MOCKUPS
* MONITORS
* LANGUAGES
* LIBRARIES
* INTERFACE COMPILERS

* FORMATIVE EVALUATION METHODS

* INPUT TO DESIGN

* COGNITIVE MODELS OF TASKS

* METAPHORS AND MENTAL MODELS
* ARTIFACTS AND TOOLS

MENTAL MODELS RESEARCH 1

* UNCLEAR RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MENTAL MODELS AND
* COGNITIVE MODELS
* HOW PEOPLE INTERMIX DIFFERENT MODELS AND REPRESENTATIONS IN PRODUCING BEHAVIOUR
* HOW PEOPLE ADOPT AND MODIFY MENTAL MODELS
* WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE FOR DEFINING A MENTAL MODEL

* LEVELS OF DETAIL AND ABSTRACTION

MENTAL MODELS RESEARCH II

* HOW KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SYSTEMS IS ACQUIRED
* IMPACT OF INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES HAVE ON THE LEARNING AND UTILITY OF MENTAL MODELS
* IMPROVED TRAINING AND DOCUMENTATION METHODS FOR MENTAL MODELS (TRAINING WHEELS)
* SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR INTERFACES TO SUPPORT MODEL CONSTRUCTION AND UTILIZATION

OBSERVATIONS I

* EVERY DESIGNER WANTS TO FIND A "MIMESIS"

* A CLOSED SYSTEM LIKE "STARTREK"

* THAT WHICH MAKES NO PERCEPTIBLE DIFFERENCE BY ITS PRESENCE OR ABSENCE IS NO REAL PART OF THE WHOLE

* - ARISTOTLE

* ALL THE NODES AN ELECTRONIC MESSAGE WENT THROUGH

OBSERVATIONS II

* BEWARE THE OVER GENERALIZED SYSTEM WHERE ANYTHING CAN BE DONE BUT WITH CONSIDERABLE DIFFICULTY

* THE TURING TARPIT

* BEWARE THE OVER SPECIALIZED SYSTEM WHERE OPERATIONS ARE EASY BUT LITTLE OF INTEREST IS POSSIBLE

* CONVERSE OF THE TURING TARPIT

POSSIBLE PROJECT TOPICS I

* GUIDELINES FOR THE USE OF COLOR
* USER FUNCTIONALITY FOR WINDOWS
* DESIGNS FOR NAVIGATING HYPERTEXT
* COLLABORATIVE HYPERTEXT
* GENERAL MARKUP LANGUAGE AND USABILITY
* CURRENT WORK ON METAPHORS, MENTAL MODELS, & ARTIFACTS

POSSIBLE PROJECT TOPICS II

* DOCUMENTATION AND ON-LINE HELP GUIDELINES
* USER OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN INTERFACES
* BEYOND DEMO2 (LANGUAGES, KERNELS, COMPILERS)
* VIRTUAL REALITIES
* GUIDELINES FOR ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGEMENT POLICIES (INCLUDING COSTING)

POSSIBLE PROJECT TOPICS III

* GUIDELINES FOR GRAPHICS AND MANIPULATING GRAPHICS
* INTERFACE CONSIDERATIONS FOR GROUPWARE SYSTEMS
* INTERFACE CONSIDERATIONS FOR INFORMATION RETRIEVAL
* CAD/CAM DESIGN INTERFACES (GRAPHICS CONSTRUCTION)
* HUMAN PROBLEM SOLVING MODELS
* COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY FINDINGS RELATING TO INTERFACE DESIGN


GO TO START