Physics Faculty
Distinguished Professor, Physics, NJIT
Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research
Director:   Owens Valley Solar Array
Project Scientist: Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR)
OFFICE: 101 Tiernan Hall
PHONE: (973) 642-7878

Professional Information
Official Bio

Education  B.S. in Physics, The University of Michigan, 1976 
Ph.D. in Astro-Geophysics, University of Colorado, 1982 

Courses and Teaching 


astrophotography photos


Spring 2013: Phys 111, Physics I
Fall     2007: Phys 121, Physics II
Fall     2013: Phys 234H, Physics III Honors
Fall     2006: Phys 202, Introductory Astronomy 
Spring 2003: Phys 321, Astronomy and Astrophysics II
Spring 2018: Phys 322, Observational Astronomy
Fall     2018: Phys 320, Astronomy and Astrophysics I
Spring 2014: Phys 728, Radio Astronomy (grad course)
Fall     2010: Phys 430, Classical Mechanics
Spring 2010: Phys 114, Data Reduction w/ Applications
Astronomy Program web pages at NJIT
NJIT Astronomy Club

Also participating in Project Astro Nova, an NSF/Astronomical Society of the Pacific initiative to pair up middle- and high-school teachers with astronomers in New Jersey. 

Research Interests 

The Sun
Space Weather

Solar physics and phenomena of the atmosphere of the Sun and solar-like stars, including solar/stellar flares, sunspots, active regions, filaments and prominences, quiet Sun network.  Measurements of physical parameters of the solar atmosphere, such as magnetic fields, density, temperature, and energy distribution of electrons and ions in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona.  Radio emission from the Sun and stars, radio emission mechanisms, radio instrumentation and techniques.  Microwave spectral imaging of the Sun and stars. High-energy solar physics, including hard and soft X-ray, extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and gamma-ray observations. The effects of solar radio bursts on wireless communication and navigation systems. Radio frequency interference mitigation for radio astronomy observations. 

(Aug. 27, 2008): Watch video of Spectral Kurtosis elimination of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

News Articles:

National Academies Talk: Science with the Solar Radio Spectrum

Advisory Committee Talk: OVSA_Talk.ppt IGSR1.avi

Download a video of a solar eclipse made with GMRT


Research funding provided by the National Science Foundation and NASA

Recent Journal Articles:

Published 2018:

  1. Fleishman, G. D., Loukitcheva, M. A., Kopnina, V. Y., Nita, G. M., & Gary, D. E. 2018, “The coronal volume of energetic particles in solar flares as revealed by microwave imaging,” Astrophysical Journal, in press (arXiv:1809.04753)
  2. Kuroda, N., Gary, D. E., Wang, H., et al. 2018, “Three-dimensional Forward-fit Modeling of the Hard X-Ray and Microwave Emissions of the 2015 June 22 M6.5 Flare,”  Astrophysical Journal, 852, 32
  3. Gary, D. E., Chen, B., Dennis, B. R., et al. 2018, “Microwave and Hard X-Ray Observations of the 2017 September 10 Solar Limb Flare,”  Astrophysical Journal, 863, 83
  4. Bastian, T. S., Bárta, M., Brajša, R., et al. 2018, “Exploring the Sun with ALMA,” The Messenger, 171, 25
  5. Xu, Y., Cao, W., Ahn, K., et al. 2018, “Transient rotation of photospheric vector magnetic fields associated with a solar flare,”  Nature Communications, 9, 46
  6. Nita, G. M., Viall, N. M., Klimchuk, J. A., et al. 2018, “Dressing the Coronal Magnetic Extrapolations of Active Regions with a Parameterized Thermal Structure,”  Astrophysical Journal,, 853, 66

Published 2017:

  1. Wang, Z., Chen, B., Gary, D. E., 2017, “Dynamic Spectral Imaging of Decimetric Fiber Bursts in an Eruptive Solar Flare,” Astrophysical Journal, 848, 77
  2. White, S. M., Iwai, K., Phillips, N. M., and 31 co-authors, 2017, “Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): Fast-Scan Single-Dish Mapping,” Solar Phys., 292, 88
  3. Shimojo, M., Bastian, T. S., Hales, A. S., and 25 co-authors, 2017, “Observing the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA): High-Resolution Interferometric Imaging,” Solar Phys., 292, 87
  4. Kocharov, L., Pohjolainen, S., Mishev, A., and 13 co-authors, 2017, “Investigating the Origins of Two Extreme Solar Particle Events: Proton Source Profile and Associated Electromagnetic Emissions,” Astrophysical Journal, 839, 79
  5. Fleishman, G. D., Nita, G. M., Gary, D. E. 2017, “A Large-scale Plume in an X-class Solar Flare,” Astrophysical Journal, 845, 135
  6. Wang, H., Liu, C., Ahn, K., Xu, Y., Jing, J., Deng, N., Huang, N., Liu, R., Kusano, K., Fleishman, G. D., Gary, D. E., Cao, W. 2017, “High-resolution observations of flare precursors in the low solar atmosphere,” Nature Astronomy, 1, 0085

Published 2016

  1. Wedemeyer, S., Bastian, T., Brajsa, R., and 35 others. 2016, “Solar Science with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array—A New View of Our Sun,” Space Sci. Reviews, 200, 1
  2. Jing, J., Xu, Y., Cao, W., Liu, C., Gary, D. E., Wang, H. 2016, “Unprecedented Fine Structure of a Solar Flare Revealed by the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope,” Nature Scientific Reports, 6, 24319
  3. Xu, Y., Cao, W., Ding, M., Kleint, L., Su, J., Liu, C., Ji, H., Chae, J., Jing, J., Cho, K., Cho, K., Gary, D. E., Wang, H. 2016, “Ultra-narrow Negative Flare Front Observed in Helium-10830 A Using the 1.6-m New Solar Telescope,” Astrophysical Journal, 819, 89
  4. Liu, C., Xu, Y., Cao, W., Deng, N., Lee, J., Hudson, H. S., Gary, D. E., Wang, J., Jing, J., Wang, H. 2016, “Flare differentially rotates sunspot on Sun's surface,” Nature Communications, 7, 13104
  5. Nita, G. M., & Gary, D. E. 2016, “Measurement of duration and signal-to-noise ratio of astronomical transients using a Spectral Kurtosis spectrometer,” Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 121, 7353
  6. Fleishman, G. D., Nita, G. M., Kontar, E. P., & Gary, D. E. 2016, “Narrowband Gyrosynchrotron Bursts: Probing Electron Acceleration in Solar Flares,” Astrophysical Journal, 826, 38
  7. Nita, G. M., Hickish, J., MacMahon, D., & Gary, D. E. 2016, “EOVSA Implementation of a Spectral Kurtosis Correlator for Transient Detection and Classification,” Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation, 5, 1641009-7366

Published 2015

  1. Chen, B., Bastian, T. S., Shen, C., Gary, D. E., Krucker, S., & Glesener, L., 2015, “Particle Acceleration by a Solar Flare Termination Shock,” Science, 350, 1228
  2. Fleishman, G. D., Xu, Y., Nita, G. M., & Gary, D. E. 2015, “Validation of the Coronal Thick Target Source Model,” Astrophysical Journal, 816, 62
  3. Kuroda, N., Wang, H., & Gary, D. E. 2015, “Observation of the 2011-02-15 X2.2 Flare in Hard X-Rays and Microwaves, “ Astrophysical Journal, 807, 124
  4. Wang, Z., Gary, D. E., Fleishman, G. D., & White, S. M. 2015, “Coronal Magnetography of a Simulated Solar Active Region from Microwave Imaging Spectropolarimetry, “ Astrophysical Journal, 805, 93
  5. Fleishman, G. D., Nita, G. M., & Gary, D. E. 2015, “Energy Partitions and Evolution in a Purely Thermal Solar Flare,” Astrophysical Journal, 802, 122
  6. Nita, G. M., Fleishman, G. D., Kuznetsov, A. A., Kontar, E. P., & Gary, D. E. 2015, “Three-dimensional Radio and X-Ray Modeling and Data Analysis Software: Revealing Flare Complexity,” Astrophysical Journal, 799, 236
  7. Ryabov, B. I., Gary, D. E., Peterova, N. G., Shibasaki, K., & Topchilo, N. A. 2015, “Reduced Coronal Emission Above Large Isolated Sunspots,” Solar Physics, 290, 21

Published 2014

  1. Chen, B., Bastian, T. S., & Gary, D. E. 2014, “Direct Evidence of an Eruptive, Filament-hosting Magnetic Flux Rope Leading to a Fast Solar Coronal Mass Ejection,” Astrophysical Journal, 794, 149
  2. Nita, G. M., Fleishman, G. D., Gary, D. E., Marin, W., & Boone, K. 2014, “Fitting FFT-derived Spectra: Theory, Tool, and Application to Solar Radio Spike Decomposition,” Astrophysical Journal, 789, 152

Published 2013

  1. Chen, B., Bastian, T. S., White, S. M., Gary, D. E., Perley, R., Rupen, M. and Carlson, B., 2013, "Tracing Electron Beams in the Sun's Corona with Radio Dynamic Imaging Spectroscopy," Astrophysical Journal Letters, 763, 21
  2. Gary, D. E., Fleishman, G. D. and Nita, G. M., 2013, "Magnetography of Solar Flaring Loops with Microwave Imaging Spectropolarimetry," Solar Physics, DOI: 10.1007/s11207-013-0299-3, ArXiv preprint
  3. Fleishman, G. D., Kontar, E. P., Nita, G. M. and Gary, D. E. 2013, "Probing Dynamics of Electron Acceleration with Radio and X-Ray Spectroscopy, Imaging, and Timing in the 2002 April 11 Solar Flare," Astrophysical Journal, 768, 190

Published 2012

  1. Bastian, T. S., Gary, D. E., 2012, "Observing the Sun at Radio Wavelengths: Current Status and Future Prospects," Science with Large Solar Telescopes, Proceedings of IAU Special Session 6, held 22-24 August, 2012. Online at,
  2. Gary, D. E. and Hurford, G. J., 2012, "Harold Zirin," Physics Today, 65, 68

Published 2011

  1. Gary, D. E., 2011, "Solar Radio Burst Effects on Wireless Systems," 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, DOI: 10.1109/ISEMC.2011.6038392.
  2. Nita, G. M., Fleishman, G. D., Jing, J., Lesovoi, S. V., Bogod, V. M., Yasnov, L. V., Wang, H. & Gary, D. E., 2011, "3D Structure of Microwave Sources from Solar Rotation Stereoscopy vs Magnetic Extrapolations," Astrophysical Journal, 737, 82 < >
  3. Chen, B., Bastian, T. S., Gary, D. E. and Jing, J., 2011, "Spatially and Spectrall Resolved Observations of a Zebra Pattern in Solar Decimetric Radio Burst," Astrophysical Journal, 736, 64. <>
  4. Fleishman, G. D., Nita, G. M. and Gary, D. E. 2010, “New Interactive Solar Flare Modeling and Advanced Radio Diagnostics Tools,”Advances in Plasma Astrophysics, IAU Symp. 274, (A. Bonanno, E. de Gouveia Dal Pino & A. Kosovichev, eds.), 280 (arXiv preprint:
  5. Fleishman, G. D., Kontar, E. P., Nita, G. M. and Gary, D. E., 2011, “A Cold, Tenuous Solar Flare: Acceleration Without Heating,”Astrophysical Journal Letters, 731, L19. <Download Publication PDF>
  6. Tun, S. D., Gary, D. E., Georgoulis, M. K. 2011, “Three-dimensional Structure of a Solar Active Region from Spatially and Spectrally Resolved Microwave Observations,”Astrophysical Journal, 728, 1. <>

Published 2010

  1. Nita, G. M. and Gary, D. E. 2010, “Statistics of the SK Estimator,” Proc. of Science, <Download Publication PDF>
  2. Gary, D. E., Liu, Z. and Nita, G. M. 2010, “Hardware Implementation of an SK Spectrometer ,” Proc. of Science, <Download Publication PDF>
  3. Michalopoulou, Z-H., Mukherjee, S., Hor, Y. L., Su, K., Liu, Z., Barat, R. B., Gary, D. E., and Federici, J. F. 2010, "RDX Detection with THz Spectroscopy," Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 31,1171.
  4. Nita, G. M. and Gary, D. E. 2010, “The Generalized Spectral Kurtosis Estimator,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 406L, 60 <Download Publication PDF>
  5. Gary, D. E., Liu, Z. and Nita, G. M. 2010, “A Wideband Spectrometer with RFI Detection,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 122, 560<Download Publication PDF>
  6. Nita, G. M. and Gary, D. E. 2010, “Statistics of the Spectral Kurtosis Estimator,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 122, 595 <Download Publication PDF>
  7. Su, K., Liu, Z., Barat, R. B., Gary, D. E., Michalopoulou, Z. H. and Federici, J. F. 2010, “ Two-dimensional interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging with a hybrid terahertz/ millimeter wave system,” Applied Optics, 49, 13

Full list of Publications 

Professional Societies 

1983-present: American Astronomical Society (AAS)
2006-present: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
1989-present: Solar Physics Division (SPD/AAS); Treasurer (1996-2001)
1983-present: International Astronomical Union (IAU) 
1985-present: American Geophysical Union (AGU)
1997-present: International Union of Radio Science (URSI)

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