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About Me

 

Andrew Gerrard is currently a Professor of Physics at the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) located in Newark, NJ and is the Director of the NJIT Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR). Gerrard’s research interests involve the investigation of the transfer of energy into, and subsequent synoptic effects within, the Earth’s upper atmosphere. Though it is well understood that the upper atmosphere receives substantial amounts of energy from the sun and magnetosphere (i.e., energy from above the upper atmosphere), the physical mechanisms associated with this energy input are unclear. Furthermore, the nature and amount of energy injected into the upper atmosphere from lower altitudes (i.e., energy from the lower and middle atmosphere) is still uncertain and potentially significant. As such, Gerrard has been very active in bringing together both modeling and experimental techniques to address the physics of such energy injection. In fact, Gerrard leads the CSTR group at NJIT, one of a few research centers in the world capable of covering experimental investigations ranging from the sun’s surface all the way to Earth’s surface.

Education

2002           Ph. D. in EE, The Pennsylvania State University
1999           M.S. in EE, The Pennsylvania State University
1996           B.A.in Physics, SUNY Geneseo

Affliations

2012-present   Professor, Dept. of Physics, NJIT
2006-2012       Associate Professor, Dept. of Physics, NJIT
2005-2007       Assistant Research Professor, Clemson University
2003-2004       Post-Doctoral Fellow, Clemson University
2003               Adjunct Professor of Physics, SUNY Morrisville
2001-2003       Assistant Professor of Physics, SUNY Morrisville

Selected Journal Publications

Yue, C., J. Bortnik, R. M. Thorne, Q. Ma, X. An, C. R. Chappell, A. J. Gerrard, L. J. Lanzerotti, Q. Shi, G. D. Reeves, H. E. Spence, D. G. Mitchell, M. Gkioulidou, and C. A. Kletzing (2017), The characteristic pitch angle distributions of 1 eV to 600 keV protons near the equator based on Van Allen Probes observations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 122, 9464–9473. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA024421.

Cohen, R., A. J. Gerrard, L. J. Lanzerotti, A. R. Soto-Chavez, H. Kim, and J. W. Manweiler (2017), Climatology of high-β plasma measurements in Earth's inner magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 711–726, doi:10.1002/2016JA022513.

Motoba, T., Y. Ebihara, A. Kadokura, M. J. Engebretson, M. R. Lessard, A. T. Weatherwax, and A. J. Gerrard (2017), Fast-moving diffuse auroral patches: A new aspect of daytime Pc3 auroral pulsations, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 1542–1554, doi:10.1002/2016JA023285.

Kim, H., C. R. Clauer, A. J. Gerrard, M. J. Engebretson, M. D. Hartinger, M. R. Lessard, J. Matzka, D. G. Sibeck, H. J. Singer, C. Stolle,D. R. Weimer, and Z. Xu (2017), Conjugate observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves associated with traveling convection vortex events, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 7336–7352, doi:10.1002/2017JA024108.

Soto-Chavez, A. R., L. J. Lanzerotti, A. Gerrard, H. Kim, J. Bortnik, and J. W. Manweiler (2016), RBSPICE measurement of ion loss during the 2015 March storm: Adiabatic response to the geomagnetic field change, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, doi:10.1002/2016JA022512.

Mehta, A. J. Gerrard, Y. Ebihara, A. T. Weatherwax, and L. J. Lanzerotti (2017), Short-period mesospheric gravity waves and their sources at the South Pole, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 911–919, doi:10.5194/acp-17-911-2017

Mehta, D., A. J. Gerrard, Y. Ebihara, A. T. Weatherwax, and L. J. Lanzerotti (2016) Mesospheric gravity waves and their sources at the South Pole, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-252, 2016.

Urban, K. D., A. J. Gerrard, L. J. Lanzerotti, and A. T. Weatherwax (2016), Rethinking the polar cap: Eccentric dipole structuring of ULF power at the highest corrected geomagnetic latitudes, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, doi:10.1002/2016JA022567.

Frissell, N. A., J. B. H. Baker, J. M. Ruohoniemi, R. A. Greenwald, A. J. Gerrard, E. S. Miller, and M. L. West (2016) Sources and characteristics of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by high-frequency radars in the North American sector, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 3722-3739, doi = 10.1002/2015JA022168.

Chaston, C.C., J. W. Bonnell, J. R. Wygant, C. A. Kletzing, G. D. Reeves, A. J. Gerrard, L. Lanzerotti, C. W. Smith (2015) Extreme ionospheric ion energization and electron heating in Alfvén waves in the storm-time inner magnetosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 10.1002/2015GL066674.

Gerrard, A., L. Lanzerotti, M. Gkioulidou, D. Mitchell, J. Manweiler, J. Bortnik, and K. Keika (2014), Initial measurements of O-ion and He-ion decay rates observed from the Van Allen Probes RBSPICE instrument, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 8813–8819, doi:10.1002/2014JA020374.

Baker, D. N., A. N. Jaynes, V. C. Hoxie, R. M. Thorne, J. C. Foster, X. Li, J. F. Fennell, J. R. Wygant, S. G. Kanekal, P. J. Erickson, W. Kurth, W. Li, Q. Ma, Q. Schiller, L. Blum, D. M. Malaspina, A. Gerrard, and L. J. Lanzerotti (2014) An impenetrable barrier to ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts, Nature 515, 531–534, doi:10.1038/nature13956.

Frissell, N. A., J. B. H. Baker, J. M. Ruohoniemi, A. J. Gerrard, E. S. Miller, J. P. Marini, M. L. West, and W. A. Bristow (2014), Climatology of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by the midlatitude Blackstone SuperDARN radar, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 7679–7697, doi:10.1002/2014JA019870.

Makela, J. J., B. J. Harding, J. W. Meriwether, R. Mesquita, S. Sanders, A. J. Ridley, M. W. Castellez, Ciocca, G. D. Earle, N. A. Frissell, D. L. Hampton, A. J. Gerrard, J. Noto and C. R. Martinis (2014), Storm time response of the midlatitude thermosphere: Observations from a network of Fabry-Perot interferometers, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 6758–6773, doi:10.1002/2014JA019832.

Melville, R., A. Stillinger, A. Gerrard, A. Weatherwax (2014), Sustainable energy at the 100-W level for scientific sites on the Antarctic Plateau: Lessons learned from the PENGUIn-AGO project, Review of Scientific Instruments, 85, 4, id.045117.

Gerrard, A., L. Lanzerotti, M. Gkioulidou, D. Mitchell, J. Manweiler, and J. Bortnik (2014), Quiet time observations of He ions in the inner magnetosphere as observed from the RBSPICE instrument aboard the Van Allen Probes mission, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL059175.

Earle, G. D., R. L. Davidson, R. A. Heelis, W. R. Coley, D. R. Weimer, J. J. Makela, D. J. Fisher, A. J. Gerrard, J. Meriwether (2013), Low latitude thermospheric responses to magnetic storms, DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50212.

Li, Z., S. Naqvi , A. J. Gerrard, J. L. Chau, and Y. Bhattacharya (2012), Initial MST radar observations of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric duct-like structures over Jicamarca, Peru, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11085–11093, doi:10.5194/acp-12-11085-2012.

Gerrard, A. J. and Meriwether, J. W.: Initial daytime and nighttime SOFDI observations of thermospheric winds from Fabry-Perot Doppler shift measurements of the 630-nm OI line-shape profile (2011), Ann. Geophys., 29, 1529-1536, doi:10.5194/angeo-29-1529-2011.

Urban, K. D., A. J. Gerrard, Y. Bhattacharya, A. J. Ridley, L. J. Lanzerotti, and A. T. Weatherwax (2011), Quiet time observations of the open-closed boundary prior to the CIR-induced storm of 9 August 2008, Space Weather, 9, S11001, doi:10.1029/2011SW000688.

Gerrard, A. J., Y. Bhattacharya, and J. P. Thayer (2011), Observations of in-situ generated gravity waves during a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE) event, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 22, pp.11913-11917, doi: 10.5194/acp-11-11913-2011.

Gerrard, A. J., Y. Bhattacharya, and J. P. Thayer (2011), Observations of in-situ generated gravity waves during a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE) event, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 14221-14232, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-14221-2011.

Li, Z., S. Naqvi, A. J. Gerrard, J. L. Chau, and Y. Bhattacharya (2011), Numerical modeling of lower stratospheric Doppler ducted gravity waves over Jicamarca, Peru, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 11, 19011-19027, doi:10.5194/acpd-11-19011-2011.

Bhattacharya, Y., and A. J. Gerrard (2010), Wintertime mesopause region vertical winds from Resolute Bay, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00N07, doi:10.1029/2010JD014113.

Gerrard, A. J., D. Detrick, S. Mende, L. J. Lanzerotti, A. T. Weatherwax, and Y. Bhattacharya (2010), Photometric observations of 630.0-nm OI and 427.8-nm N2+ emission from South Pole and McMurdo Stations during winter: Analysis of temporal variations spanning minutes to hourly timescales, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 115, No. A8, A08231, 10.1029/2009JA014970.

Bhattacharya, Y. and A. J. Gerrard, Correlations of mesospheric winds with subtle motion of the Arctic polar vortex, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 431-436, 2010.

Bhattacharya, Y. and A. J. Gerrard, Correlations of mesospheric winds with subtle motion of the Arctic polar vortex, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 9, 16549–16562, 2009.

Lessard, M. R., A. T. Weatherwax, M. Spasojevic, U. Inan, A. Gerrard, L. Lanzerotti, A. Ridley, M. J. Engebretson, N. Petit, R. Clauer, J. LaBelle, S. Mende, H. Frey, S. Pilipenko, T. J. Rosenberg, and D. Detrick, PENGUIn multi-instrument observations of high-latitude injections during the March 23, 2007 substorm, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A00C11, doi:10.1029/2008JA013507, 2009.

Brown, L. B., A. J. Gerrard, J. W. Meriwether, and J. J. Makela, All-sky imaging observations of mesospheric fronts in OI 557.7 nm and broadband OH airglow emissions: Analysis of frontal structure, atmospheric background conditions, and potential sourcing mechanisms, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004223, 2004.

Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, S. D. Eckermann, and J. P. Thayer, Gravity waves and mesospheric clouds in the summer middle atmosphere: A comparison of lidar measurements and ray modeling of gravity waves over Sondrestrom, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 109(D10), D1010310.1029/2002JD002783, 2004.

Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, J. P. Thayer, and S. D. Eckermann, Concerning the upper stratospheric gravity wave and mesospheric cloud relationship over Sondrestrom, Greenland, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr.Phys., 66, 229-240, 2004.

Thayer, J. P., M. Rapp, A. J. Gerrard, E. Gudmundsson, T. J. Kane, Gravity-wave influences on Arctic mesospheric clouds as determined by a Rayleigh lidar at Sondrestrom, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D8), 8449, doi:10.1029/2002JD002363, 2003.

Collins, S. C., J. M. C. Plane, M. C. Kelley, T. G. Wright, P. Soldán, R. J. Rollason, T. J. Kane, A. J. Gerrard, B. W. Grime, J. S. Friedman, S. A. González, Q. Zhou, and M. P. Sulzer, A study of the role of ion-molecule chemistry in the formation of sporadic sodium layers, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Physics, 64, 7, 845-860, 2002.

Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, J. P. Thayer, T. J. Duck, J. A. Whiteway, and J. Fiedler, Synoptic-scale study of the Arctic polar vortex’s influence on the middle atmosphere: I. Observations, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D16), 4276, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000681, 2002.

Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, J. P. Thayer, C. S. Ruf, and R. L. Collins, Consideration of non-Poisson distributions for Lidar applications, App. Optics, 40, 1488-1492, 2001.

Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, and J. P. Thayer, Noctilucent clouds and wave dynamics: Observations at Sondrestrom, Greenland, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2817-2820, 1998.

Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, D. D. Meisel, J. P. Thayer, and R. B. Kerr, Investigation of a resonance lidar for measurement of thermospheric metastable helium, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 59, 2023-2035, 1997.


Professional Review Papers
Meriwether, J. W., and A. J. Gerrard, Mesosphere inversion layers and stratosphere temperature enhancements, Rev. Geophys., 42, RG3003, doi:10.1029/2003RG000133, 2004.


Papers Appearing in Books

Lanzerotti, L. J., and A. J. Gerrard (2016), Ring Current Ions Measured by the RBSPICE Instrument on the Van Allen Probes Mission, Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Solar System, edited by C.R. Chappell, R.W. Schunk, P.M. Banks, R.M. Thorne and J.L. Burch, AGU Monograph, John Wiley, 2016.

Gerrard, A. J., Application of the Fabry-Pérot Interferometer to Thermospheric-Ionospheric Measurements, Book Appendix, Kelley, M. C. The Earth’s Ionosphere: Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics, Academic Press, Burlington, MA, ISBN: 13:978-0-12-088425-4, 2009.

Gerrard, A. J., T. J. Kane, and J. P. Thayer, Year-round temperature and wave measurements of the Arctic middle atmosphere for 1995-1998, Atmospheric Science Across the Stratopause, D. E. Siskind, S. D. Eckermann, and M. E. Summers, Eds., Geophysical Monograph Series 123, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2000.


Other (Peer-Reviewed) Publications
Solar-Terrestrial Research in Polar Regions:Past, Present, and Future (2014). Lessard, M. R., A. J. Gerrard, and A. T. Weatherwax, Eds., Proceedings of the Polar Research Meeting, November 12-13, 2012, University of New Hampshire, USA.

Kane, T. J., A. J. Gerrard, A. Hassiotis, Global forecasts of thermospheric gravity wave activity as generated from tropospheric sources: An overview of the FOREGRATS model with application to the prediction of equatorial spread-F, 85th AMS Annual Meeting, 9–13 January 2005, San Diego, California.

Gerrard, A. J., Future CEDAR Lidar-Science Challenges, contribution to: CEDAR LIDAR BEYOND PHASE III; ACCOMPLISHMENTS, REQUIREMENTS AND GOALS, A self-assessment by the CEDAR lidar community for the National Science Foundation, R. L. Collins, ed., November 2003.

Gerrard, A. J., J. P. Thayer, and T. J. Kane, Mesospheric clouds and the duality of gravity waves, Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 83(43), 488, 2002.

Gerrard, A. J., Synoptic-scale Variability of Arctic Gravity Wave Activity During Summer and the Potential Impacts on the High Latitude Middle Atmosphere, Ph.D. Thesis, The Pennsylvania State University, 183 pp, 2002.

Gerrard, A. J., C. M. Gerrard, M. A. London, K. A. Soldavin, T. J. Kane, and A. Freed, The Groundhog Oscillation (GO): Further Evidence For Global Change, Annals of Improbable Research, 7, Jan-Feb, 2001.