Green Chemistry in Teaching Laboratory

Microwave Induced Reactions


Green Chemistry

Microwave Chemistry

Industrial Perspective

Safety Tips



High School Teachers  Workshop




Green Chemistry


Green chemistry or sustainable chemistry has been defined as the utilization of a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture and application of chemical products as outlined in the “Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry’ developed by Paul Anastas and John Warner in 1998.


The 12 principles are: 

  1. It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed.

  2. Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product.

  3. Wherever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.

  4. Chemical products should be designed to preserve efficacy of function while reducing toxicity.

  5. The use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and, innocuous when used.

  6. Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.

  7. A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting wherever technically and economically practicable.

  8. Reduce derivatives - Unnecessary derivatization (blocking group, protection/ deprotection, temporary modification) should be avoided whenever possible.

  9. Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.

  10. Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products.

  11. Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.

  12. Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.

Green chemistry aims at pollution prevention by eliminating or reducing the need for solvents. As a chemical philosophy, green chemistry applies to organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, and even physical chemistry. While green chemistry seems to focus on industrial applications, it does apply to any chemistry choice. There are two ways, green chemistry can promote pollution preventions, the first is reducing the need for solvents by substituting solvents and ingredients, and the second is by reducing energy needs. Thus the major objective of Green Chemistry is,

  1. To reduced waste, eliminating costly end-of-the-pipe treatments.

  2. To produce safer products.

  3. To reduced use of energy and resources .

  4. To improve competitiveness of chemical manufacturers and their customers.