PHYS 446 – |
Fall
2015 |
Objective: This
course integrates theory of Solid State Physics with experimental
demonstrations in the Research Physics Lab.
The course will provide a valuable theoretical introduction and an
overview of the fundamental applications of the physics of solids. This course
includes theoretical description of crystal and electronic structure, lattice
dynamics, and optical properties of different materials (metals,
semiconductors, dielectrics, magnetic materials and superconductors), based on
the classical and quantum physics principles. Several advanced experiments of
X-ray diffraction, Raman Scattering, Photoluminescence, etc., will be carrier out in the Research Physics Lab followed by their
theoretical discussion.
Instructor:
476 Tiernan
tel: (973) 596-5342
Office hours: Tuesday:
2:30 pm – 6:00 pm and Thursday by appointment
Class Schedule:
Monday, 1 pm | FMH407
Webpage: http://web.njit.edu/~sirenko/
Syllabus,
lecture notes, and homework assignments will be posted on the Website.
Text: M. A. Omar,
“Elementary
Solid State Physics”, Addison-Wesley, 1993.
Charles
Kittel, Introduction
to Solid State Physics, 8th Edition,
Wiley, 2004.
Supplemental texts:
·
H. Ibach, H. Lüth, “Solid-State
Physics. An Introduction to
Principles of Materials Science”, Springer, 2003.
· J. S. Blakemore, "Solid State Physics”, Third Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1985
·
P. Yu and M. Cardona, “Fundamentals of semiconductors”
·
N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, “
Homeworks: 10 %
Research project / Presentation: 10 %
Two in-class exams: 15% each;
Final
exam: 50%
Lecture1
“Crystal structure …” HW1 (due Sept 23)
Lecture2 “X-ray diffraction …” HW2 (due Sept 30)
Lecture3 “X-ray diffraction and structure factors"
Lecture4
“Phonons …” HW3 (due Oct 10th)
Lecture5 “More phonons …”
Lecture6 “Optical properties of solids …” HW4 (due Nov 3)
Lecture7 “Free electrons …” HW5 (due Nov 10th)
Lecture8 “Bonding, Bands, and Electrons in Solids …”
Lecture9 “Semiconductors-I …”
Lecture10 “Semiconductors-II
…”
Lecture11 “Supercond …”
Lecture12 “Magnets …”
Course Outline:
I. Crystal structure, symmetry and types of chemical bonds. (Chapter 1)
The
crystal lattice
Point
symmetry
The 32
crystal classes
Types of bonding (covalent, ionic, metallic bonding; hydrogen and
van der Waals).
II. Diffraction from periodic
structures (Chapter 2)
Reciprocal
lattice; Brillouin zones
Laue
condition and Bragg law
Structure
factor; defects
Methods
of structure analysis
HRXRD. Experimental
demonstration in the Physics Lab using Bruker D8 Discover XRD
III. Lattice vibrations and thermal
properties (Chapter 3)
Elastic
properties of crystals; elastic waves
Models
of lattice vibrations
Phonons
Theories of phonon specific heat and thermal
conduction.
Anharmonicity; thermal expansion
Raman Scattering by phonons.
Experimental demonstration in the Physics Lab using Ar-laser/SPEX
500M, CCD –based Raman Scattering setup
IV. Electrons in metals (Chapters 4–5)
Free
electron theory of metals
Fermi
Statistics
Band
theory of solids
V.
Semiconductors (Chapters 6–7)
Band structure.
Electron
statistics; carrier concentration and transport; conductivity; mobility
Impurities
and defects
Magnetic
field effects: cyclotron resonance and Hall effect
Optical
properties; absorption, photoconductivity and luminescence
Basic
semiconductor devices
Photoluminescence. Experimental
demonstration in the Physics Lab using Nd:YAG
laser/SPEX –based Photoluminescence setup
VI. Dielectric
properties of solids (Chapters 8)
Dielectric
constant and polarizability (susceptibility)
Dipolar
polarizability, ionic and electronic polarizability
Piezoelectricity;
pyro- and ferroelectricity
Light
propagation in solids
VII. Magnetism (Chapters 9)
Magnetic
susceptibility
Classification
of materials; diamagnetism, paramagnetism
Ferromagnetism
and antiferromagnetism
Magnetic
resonance
Multiferroic
Materials
VIII. Superconductivity (Chapter 10)
Prerequisites: PHYS 432 (E&M-I )
Homework:
10 %
Research
project: 10 %
Two
in-class exams: 15% each;
Homework
Assignments will be due bi-weekly, usually on Tuesdays. Assignments are due at the beginning of class.
Homework problems, lectures, and text readings will form the basis
of the exam problems.
Project
Students will perform a
research project on a selected topic of contemporary solid state physics. Each student
will study the specific effect of their choice by reviewing scientific journal
articles focusing on the effect chosen. A formal report will be written, with a
typical length of approximately 10 pages (double spaced) or 10 PowerPoint
slides. It should be well organized and include an abstract, figures and
reference section. The report will be graded on the basis of its originality,
clarity of expression, and technical accuracy. A presentation in the class will
be schedule on the last day of the Semester (~ around Dec 10^{th},
second week of December)
Exams:
There
will be two in-class exams and a final exam. The exams will be based on the
assigned homework problems, the assigned readings in the text, lecture notes,
and the lectures. Students are allowed to use lecture notes and formula sheets.
Not allowed to discuss the problems with other students.
Academic honesty
Students are encouraged to discuss the lectures and textbook material, work together on homework problems, and study together for exams. However, students are not allowed to present other people’s work as their own (including copying another student's homework as well as using of problem solutions found on the Internet or elsewhere).
Learning Outcomes and Objectives
· Students are expected to develop a clear concept of the crystal classes and symmetries and to understand the relationship between the real and reciprocal space.
· Students will be able to calculate the Braggs conditions for X-ray diffraction in crystals and will calculate the conditions for allowed and forbidden reflections in crystals
· Students will learn the basics of the optical and acoustic phonons in crystals
· Students will become familiar with the free-electron model for metals and use the concept of Fermi energy and Fermi temperature.
· Basic concepts of the band theory of solids will be given to Students, who will be able to predict the optical properties of materials and compounds
· Students will learn the basic properties of superconductors in the frame of BCS theory
· Students will master their skills for oral presentations on the selected topics of the modern Solid State Theory.
Understanding of these major
concepts of the Solid State Theory will be tested at the two Common Quizzes and
the Final Exam.