Phys 774-101 - Principles of Spectroscopy (3 credits)   Fall  2007

(Theoretical and experimental principles of spectroscopy)


Course Objective:

The major objectives of this course are to integrate theory and practice and to bring together different branches of both Academic studies and Industrial Research through the presentation of critical aspects of modern Spectroscopy. The course will provide a valuable theoretical introduction and an overview of modern topics in spectroscopy, which are of current interest and importance in Semiconductor Industry and Biomedicine. A wide range of techniques is considered, including optical Nearfield spectroscopy, X-ray, Raman, and FTIR spectroscopy.



Andrei Sirenko  

476 Tiernan  , 

tel: (973) 596-5342

Office hours:         Wednesday:           1 pm – 2:30 pm


Class Schedule:

Wednesday          11:30am - 12:55pm                | FMH 106

Friday                     1:00pm - 2:25pm                    | FMH 203



Syllabus, lecture notes, and homework assignments will be posted on the Website.


Course elements:

·         J. Michael Hollas, Modern Spectroscopy, 4th edition, Willey, ISBN 0-470-84416-7

·         P. Yu and M. Cardona, “Fundamentals of semiconductors” (supplemental textbook)

·         Lecture Slides

·         Demonstrations in the Experimental Lab at NJIT

a.        Raman Scattering in Diamond

b.       High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction in Silicon wafer

c.        Transmission in InP-based multilayer device structure

d.       Micro-beam Photoluminescence in InGaAsP-based waveguide device structure


Grade Components:

Homework: 10 %

Research project: 10 %

Two in-class exams: 15% each;

                                Final exam: 50%           MONDAY,  DECEMBER  17th, 2007; FMH 106   08:30am-11:00am





Biweekly assignments will be due every second Wednesday. Assignments are due at the beginning of class.

Homework problems, lectures, and text readings will form the basis of the exam problems.


Project:                  Students will perform a research project on a selected topic of contemporary spectroscopy. Each graduate student will study the specific effect of their choice by reviewing scientific journal articles focusing on the effect chosen. A formal report will be written, with a typical length of approximately 10 pages (double spaced). It should be well organized and include an abstract, figures and reference section. The report will be graded on the basis of its originality, clarity of expression, and technical accuracy.

Exams:   There will be two in-class exams and a final exam. The exams will be based on the assigned homework problems, the assigned readings in the text, lecture notes, and the lectures. Students are allowed to use lecture notes and formula sheets. Not allowed to discuss the problems with other students.

Lecture Slides     and          HOMEWORK:   HW1        HW2      HW3      HW3     

Lecture1               “Introduction to EM radiation …”                  

Lecture2               “Lasers and more …”                       

Lecture3               “Spectrometers and Spectroscopy …”          


Lecture4               “Interaction with matter …”           


                Lecture5               “Transmission in thin films …”


                Lecture7               “IR spectroscopy I”


                Lecture8               “IR Spectroscopy II …”


                Lecture9               “Light Polarization”


                Lecture10             “Nonlinear Spectroscopy”


                Lecture11             “Raman Spectroscopy”


                Lecture12             “X-rays”


                Lecture13             “Synchrotrons-Neutrons Facilities”


                Lecture14             “Electron Spectroscopy”



Outline of the course:

Electromagnetic Spectrum1a. Theory of radiation and  Electromagnetic spectrum.

Classification of different parts of Electromagnetic spectrum from radio-frequency waves to hard x-rays and beyond.

1b.           Radiation sources.

Single wavelength sources. Broadband sources. Lasers, Globars, Synchrotron Radiation Sources.

Characteristics of Radiation: Intensity, Polarization, Coherence Length. CW and pulsed radiation sources.

2a.           Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with Matter.

Dielectric Function Theory. Simple Harmonic Oscillator model. Kramers-Kronig transformation

2b. Linear absorption, Transmission, and Reflection Spectroscopy.

                Applications for Solid State and Semiconductors.

2c.   Spectrometers and Detectors for Near-IR and Visible range of Electromagnetic spectrum.

        Diffraction grating, Single Grating spectrometers, High Resolution Spectrometers, CCD and array detectors. Characteristics of modern JY-Horiba spectrometers and Detectors.

2d.   Optical Spectroscopy in Industrial Characterization Lab.

        Photoluminescence characterization of Semiconductor Device wavers. Applications of Near-field optical Microscopy (NSOM).


3a. Phonons and Free Electron contribution to the Dielectric Function

        IR-active phonons, Electron Plasma Frequency. Magnetic excitations

3.b   Far-Infrared spectroscopy.

        Michelson interferometers and bolometers. Examples of FT-IR Spectroscopy of High-Tc superconductors and Ferroelectrics.

3c. FT-IR in Industrial characterization Lab for the Process Control analysis.

        Thin-films thickness measurements, Interface Quality, Multilayer device structures.

3d. Ellipsometry

3e. Examples of Biomedical Applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

FTIR Spectroscopy in the Clinical Sciences. Probing Drugs distribution in Living Tissue

4a. Nonlinear Spectroscopy

        Second harmonic generation, Frequency converters

4b.   Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

Raman scattering by electrons and Phonons, Resonant spectroscopy.

4c.   Micro-Raman Spectroscopy in Industrial Lab.

        Strain and composition measurements in Nitride-based semiconductor wafers

4d.   Bio-medical applications of Raman Scattering Spectroscopy.

        Whole Cell Studies and Tissue Characterization by Raman Spectroscopy


5a.   X-ray Spectroscopy.

Absorption, Diffraction and Fluorescence

        Braggs law; Laue Diffraction

5b.   Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, High-resolution X-ray Diffractometers, X-ray Detectors.

5c. HRXRD in Industrial Characterization Labs.

        Strain, thickness, and composition measurements in semiconductor device wafers.

Microbeam X-ray spectroscopy, Zone plates, and capillaries.  Parameters of Philips Diffractometer.

5d. Macromolecular Diffraction. DNA structural analysis. Biomedical applications of X-ray spectroscopy


6a.   Neutron Diffraction Spectroscopy

        Sources, detectors, diffractometers. Resolution.

        Comparison between Neutron and X-ray diffraction spectroscopes

6b.   Application of Neutron Diffraction for Solid State Research.

        Dispersion of phonons and magnons in Oxide crystals


7      Principles of Modulation Spectroscopy

        Spectroscopy of Solids in Electric and Magnetic Field and under Uniaxial and Hydrostatic pressure. Pump-probe Experiments.


8.     Overview of NMR and EPR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry for biomedical applications


9.       Demonstrations in the Experimental Lab at NJIT

a.        Raman Scattering in Diamond

b.       High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction in Silicon wafer

c.        Transmission in InP-based multilayer device structure

d.       Micro-beam Photoluminescence in InGaAsP-based waveguide device structure


        The total number of classes is 28, 1.5 hours each, 2 times a week.