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Information Systems Department
College of Computing Sciences
New Jersey Institute of Technology

Research Interests, Student Research/Ph.D. Projects, Selected Publications, Presentations and Other References
Michael Bieber

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QUICK LINKS: Home Page / Publications / Presentations / Ph.D. in Information Systems / IS Department

Home Page: http://web.njit.edu/~bieber
Email: bieber@njit.edu

Publication List (sorted by type of reference)

Note that my presentations are listed by research topic in the index to the right.

Research Interests:
References Grouped by Research Topic (includes relevant presentations and possible student research projects)

Research, Publications, Presentations and Potential Student Research/Ph.D. Topics (sorted by Research Theme)


(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, participatory learning, hypermedia & WWW, logic & dss, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

Research Interests: Introduction

The major theme running through my research is making people more effective. This underlies my original research work in hypermedia, starting in the 1980s and ongoing, and continues in my current projects and proposals concerning digital libraries, virtual communities, software engineering, the World Wide Web and educational research.

Selected Presentations

Selected Notes


(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, hypermedia & WWW, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, participatory learning, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

Collaborative Learning through Assessment (CLASS)/Participatory Learning (including our work on Collaborative Exams)

The Collaborative Learning through Assessment (CLASS) or Participatory Learning Approach (PLA) involves students in the entire life-cycle of a problem (i.e., from creating problems to grading). CLASS improves learning in many ways, both for on-campus and distance students. To date we have used CLASS for exams in a masters-level survey course and junior-level programming course. Extensions would include all kinds of problems (homework, labs, semester projects, quizzes, etc.)

Very briefly, the process proceeds as follows. All student involvement could be as individuals or as groups:

Students learn from this process in several ways. They learn from creating questions, from reviewing the questions that others create, from answering questions, from grading the answers, from reviewing the second-opinion grading on their answers, and from reviewing other people's answers and grading justifications.

Selected Presentations

Selected Possible Student Research/Ph.D. Projects

Selected Descriptions and Technical Reports

Selected Publications

(*) denotes student author

Dezhi Wu, Starr Roxanne Hiltz and Michael Bieber, "Acceptance of Educational Technology: Field Studies of Asynchronous Participatory Examinations," Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS), Vol. 26, No. 21, 2010, pp. 451-476. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wu-cais-2010.pdf

This research develops and applies an extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to student acceptance of online participatory examinations. Participatory exams provide learning opportunities by engaging students in the entire examination life cycle, including creating and solving problems, and grading solutions. Asynchronous learning technologies support the new participatory exam processes. Analysis of post-course student questionnaires supports the premises that students perceive that they learn from all stages of the cooperative exam process, and that acceptance of this new type of assessment procedure is a function of both intrinsic motivations (e.g., enjoyment of the experience) and extrinsic motivations (e.g., perception that one has learned from the process).


Dezhi Wu, Michael Bieber and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, "Asynchronous Participatory Exams: Internet Innovation for Engaging Students," IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2009, pp. 44-50. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wu_ieee_ic-2009.pdf

The Asynchronous Learning Networks Participatory Examination (APE) is a constructivist approach that fully engages students in the entire exam life cycle. This paper reports on a case study with 240 graduate students for five semesters. Our study results show that APE is an effective and innovative online assessment approach. We invite our colleagues at all levels to join us by "going APE" and liberating their classes from traditional, objectivist examinations.


Bieber, Michael, Jia Shen, Dezhi Wu and Starr Roxanne Hiltz. "Participatory Learning Approach." In Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, Second Edition, ed. Patricia L. Rogers, Gary A. Berg, Judith V. Boettcher, Caroline Howard, Lorraine Justice and Karen D. Schenk, 1591-1596, 2009. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/PLA-DLEncyclopedia.pdf

A short article on the Participatory Learning Approach.


Dezhi Wu, Michael Bieber and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, "Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks," Journal of Information Systems Education, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2008, pp. 321-330. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wbh08-jise.pdf

The online participatory exam transforms the traditional exam into a constructivist, cooperative and engaging learning experience. Students learn from designing and answering exam questions, from evaluating their peers’ performance, and from reading questions, answers and evaluations. This paper, aimed at faculty who teach online and at researchers interested in online learning, describes the procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of this new approach to the examination process. Five semesters of participatory exam research are analyzed. A majority of students preferred the participatory exam and believed that it increased their learning.


Shen, Jia, Roxanne Hiltz and Michael Bieber, "Learning Strategies in Online Collaborative Examinations," IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Volume 51, No. 1, March 2008, 63 - 78. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/shb08_ieee_pc.pdf

New forms of computer-mediated, online learning can benefit from new forms of assessment that fit the medium and the pedagogical style of the online environment. This paper investigates students' learning styles and learning strategies in taking online collaborative exams. Applying constructivist and collaborative learning theories, the Collaborative Examination features students’ active participation in various phases of the exam process through small group activities online. Students' learning strategies, including deep learning and collaborative learning, are investigated using a 1*3 field experiment to compare the team-based Collaborative online Exam with the Traditional in-class exam and with the Participatory Exam, where students participate in the online exam processes individually. Data analysis using results from 485 students indicates that collaborative examinations significantly reduced surface learning in exam study, and enhanced interactions and the sense of an online learning community. The results also suggest learning predispositions were significantly correlated with exam study strategies, and provide indications of their effects on learning strategies.


Shen, Jia, Roxanne Hiltz and Michael Bieber, "Collaborative Online Examinations: Impacts on Interaction, Learning, and Student Satisfaction," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, Volume 36, No. 6, November 2006, 1045-1053. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/IEEESMCA-2006.pdf

This paper presents the results of a field experiment on online examinations facilitated by collaboration support systems. In particular, it examines collaborative learning and virtual teams through online examinations as an assessment procedure, compared to traditional examinations. Assessment increasingly is regarded as an important part of the learning process. Applying constructivism and collaborative learning theories, the Collaborative Examination process features students’ active participation in various phases of the exam process through small group activities online. A 1*3 field experiment evaluated the collaborative online exam compared with the traditional in-class exam, and the Participatory Exam where students participated in the online exam processes without groups. Data analysis using results from 485 students indicates that collaborative examinations significantly enhance interactions and the sense of an online learning community, and result in significantly higher levels of perceived learning.


Shen, Jia, Michael Bieber and Roxanne Hiltz, "Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks: Longitudinal Evaluation Results," Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp. 93-113, October 2005. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/jaln2006.pdf

This paper presents longitudinal evaluation results for an online participatory examination process in an information systems course over three semesters. The exam process includes students making up questions, answering other students’ questions, grading answers to questions they author, and appealing the grades. The surveys following each exam elicited students’ feedback, and an experiment compared the participatory exam with the traditional exam in the third semester. Survey results reveal that the majority of students have favorable attitudes towards the participatory exam, and would recommend the participatory examination for future courses. Students in the participatory exam enjoyed the process significantly more than students in the traditional exam, and have higher overall preference for the exam mode, although their perceived learning and perceived fairness in grading are lower than with the traditional exam. Discussion and future research on this topic are also presented.


Wu, Dezhi (*), Michael Bieber and S. Roxanne Hiltz, "Developing and Measuring Learning from a Constructivist Learning Procedure: Participatory Examinations," in preparation

This paper presents the process framework, our research model and five semesters of experimental results with the participatory (aka collaborative) exam. A majority of students preferred the participatory exam and believed that it increased their learning.


Shen, Jia (*), Kung-E Cheng (*), Michael Bieber and Roxanne Hiltz, "Collaborative Examinations for Asynchronous Learning Networks: Three Evaluation Results," in preparation

This paper presents results of three semesters' experimentation with the collaborative examination. The collaborative exam provides opportunities for students to learn from creating, reading, answering and grading exam questions. An on-line asynchronous learning network system facilitates the process.


Shen, Jia (*), Kung-E Cheng (*), Michael Bieber and S. Roxanne Hiltz, "Traditional In-class Examination vs. Collaborative Online Examination in Asynchronous Learning Networks: Field Evaluation Results, " Proceedings of the Americas Conference on Information Systems, New York, August 2004, 2998-3008; Best Paper Nomination
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/Shen-AMCIS2004.pdf

Online courses make possible new forms of working and learning together that would be difficult or impossible to use in the classroom-based course. This paper presents field evaluation results comparing the traditional in-class examination and the collaborative online examination using asynchronous learning networks (ALN) in a graduate-level course in a U.S. university. The collaborative online exam includes students making up questions, answering, grading, and appealing the grades. A 1x2 field experiment was designed to evaluate the collaborative exam in comparison with a traditional in-class exam. Survey results (response rate = 81.6%) show an overall favorable attitude towards the collaborative exam, including enjoyability of the exam process, perceived learning, satisfaction, and recommendation for future courses. Significant correlations and differences are found among factors and between the two exam modes. Students' concerns as well as plans for future research are also discussed.


Wu, Dezhi (*), Michael Bieber, S. Roxanne Hiltz and Hyo-Joo Han, "Constructivist Learning with Participatory Examinations, " Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2004, (Advances in Teaching and Learning Technologies Minitrack), Best Paper Nomination
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/PID25671.pdf

This paper extends our prior reports on the Collaborative Examinations, presenting the process framework, our research model and further experimental results. The participatory exam process provides opportunities for students to learn from creating, reading, answering and grading exam questions. An on-line asynchronous learning network system facilitates the process. A majority of students preferred the participatory exam and believed that it increased their learning.


Shen, Jia (*), Roxanne Hiltz, Kung-E Cheng (*), Yooncheong Cho (*), Michael Bieber, "Collaborative Examinations for Asynchronous Learning Networks: Evaluation Results," Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2001, (Asynchronous Learning Networks Minitrack).
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/hicss01/hicss01-collab-midterm.pdf

This describes a new kind of on-line examination procedure, which would serve both distance and on-campus students. The "collaborative exam" engages students in a much broader range of learning activities as part of the examination process than standard exams. This paper reports on our first round of experiments with this new examination procedure.

 


(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, participatory learning, hypermedia & WWW, logic & dss, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

The Future of Education and Educational Software

Education When Students are Hands-free Online All the Time

Education will have to radically adjust when students are hands-free on-line at all times. Google Glass provides one example, but it is easy to imagine that a future version will essentially be invisible, so instructors and classmates will have to assume that you are constantly looking up information, communicating and collaborating online during class. All learning may have to become collaborative and technology supported. Tests will no longer be able to determine what someone can do without online access. The purpose of this line of research is to figure out how learning and teaching will have to adjust, and how technology might best be used to support such cyberlearning.

The Far Future of Education and Educational Software

Similarly what are the I also hope to conduct research that will create goals and guidelines for educational software. This research will take a long-term view of educational support. Assume that 30 years from now we could have any computer support we want. How will we teach effectively in this environment? How will people learn effectively in this environment?

This line of research would look at cognitive educational theories, as well as the processes involved in learning, teaching and administrating. These theories and processes should be built directly into the software environment so people can be guided to use the technology effectively. The result should be a framework for teaching and learning in both the near, medium and far future (30+ years from now). The goal would be to produce a solid vision that would guide software development of authoring tools, educational software environments and collaborative systems in the future.

Selected Possible Student Research/Ph.D. Project

 


(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, participatory learning, hypermedia & WWW, logic & dss, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

Hypermedia and the World Wide Web

Note, this section does not include papers on logic modeling of hypermedia and decision support applications utilizing hypermedia support. For these please see the section "Hypermedia, Logic Modeling and Decision Support." There are also several publications connected to our hypermedia research in the "Digital Library" section and the "Relationship Analysis" section.

Many hypermedia researchers find the level of hypermedia on the Web to be quite rudimentary compared to the research systems that have been developed These systems included sophisticated hypermedia features such as user-declared links and annotations, guided tours, recommended paths, search based on link structure (instead of text content), information overviews, and sophisticated backtracking.

Dynamic applications are those everyday applications, in which people make some kind of query and the application generates a response "dynamically" or in "real time". Because the response had to be generated instead of just retrieving a stored copy, all hypermedia features (links, annotations, connections to guided tours, etc.) have to be dynamically re-associated with the response that is displayed on the user's screen. Almost no research has been conducted on this important aspect of Web applications.

The Dynamic Hypermedia Engine (DHE) automatically provides hypermedia support for everyday applications on the Web. DHE also provides a new approach for easily converting ("migrating") non-Web applications to become Web applications, which could save developers a great deal of time.

Selected Presentations

Selected Possible Student Research/Ph.D. Projects

Grant

Selected Publications

(*) denotes student author

Zhang, Li; Bieber, Michael; Song, Min; Oria, Vincent; Millard, David, "Supplementing virtual documents with just-in-time hypermedia functionality," International Journal on Digital Libraries, Vol. 11 No. 3, 2010, pp. 155-168. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/zhang10-ijdl.pdf

Digital library systems and other analytic or computational applications create documents and display screens in response to user queries "dynamically" or in "real time." These "virtual documents" do not exist in advance, and thus hypermedia features (links, comments, and bookmark anchors) must be generated "just in time"—automatically and dynamically. In addition, accessing the hypermedia features may cause target documents to be generated or re-generated. This article describes the specific challenges for virtual documents and dynamic hypermedia functionality: dynamic regeneration, and dynamic anchor re-identification and re-location. It presents Just-in-time Hypermedia Engine to support just-in-time hypermedia across digital library and other third-party applications with dynamic content, and discusses issues prompted by this research.


Catanio, Joseph (*), Nkechi Nnadi (*), Li Zhang (*), Michael Bieber and Roberto Galnares, "Ubiquitous Metainformation and the WYWWYWI* Principle," Journal of Digital Information, 5(1), April 2004.
[on-line] http://jodi.tamu.edu/Articles/v05/i01/Catanio/ - http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wywwywi_v47.htm

* WYWWYWI - What you want, when you want it, pronounced "why why why"

Metainformation includes the structural relationships, content-based relationships, user-declared link-based relationships, and metadata around an element of interest. Combined, the metainformation goes a long way towards establishing the full semantics for (the meaning of and context around) a system's elements. We take a three-pronged approach to providing metainformation on a grand scale. First, we provide a systematic methodology for systems analysts to determine the relationships around elements of interest in their information domains - Relationship Analysis. Relationship Analysis will result in a comprehensive set of a domain's structural relationships. Second, we provide a Metainformation Engine, which automatically generates sets of structural and content-based relationships around elements of interest as links, as well as metadata within static and virtual documents. Third, we provide an infrastructure for widespread link-based services within both static and virtual documents. This approach provides the inspiration as well as a sound foundation for a ubiquitous embracing of the WYWWYWI principle in the everyday systems people use, both on the Web and beyond.


Zhang, Li (*), Michael Bieber, David Millard and Vincent Oria, "Supporting Virtual Documents in Just-in-Time Hypermedia Systems," Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Document Engineering (DocEng 2004), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, October 2004, pages 35—44. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/zhang-doceng04.pdf

Many analytical or computational applications, especially legacy systems, create documents and display screens in response to user queries "dynamically" or "in real time". These "virtual documents" do not exist in advance, and thus hypermedia features must be generated "just in time" - automatically and dynamically. Conversely, the hypermedia features may have to cause target documents to be generated or re-generated. This paper focuses on the specific challenges faced in hypermedia support for virtual documents of dynamic hypermedia functionality, dynamic regeneration, and dynamic anchor re-identification and re-location. It presents a prototype called JHE (Just-in-time Hypermedia Engine) to support just-in-time hypermedia across third party applications with dynamic content, and discusses issues prompted by this research.


Chiu, Chao-Min, Michael Bieber and Qiang Lu, "Towards Integrating Hypermedia on the Web," Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2002, (Managing Information on the Web Minitrack).
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/chiu-hicss02.pdf

This paper presents a framework for discussing issues and questions around Web Information Systems. WIS dynamically generate their contents, and thus require some mechanism to automatically infer metadata about WIS objects, infer access to relationships (i.e., links) among information objects, and provide hypermedia functionality. The framework focuses on integrating information systems into the Web and providing hypermedia functionality to them.


Balasubramanian, V., Michael Bieber and Tomás Isakowitz, "Systematic Hypermedia Design," Information Systems Journal, 26(4), 2001, 295-320.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/isj01.pdf

A systematic approach to designing and implementing a hypermedia interface to a relational database system.


Chiu, Chao-Min and Michael Bieber, "A Dynamically Mapped Open Hypermedia System Framework for Integrating Information Systems," Information and Software Technology, 43, 2001, 75-86.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/chiu/ist01.pdf

The overall goal of this research is to design a distributed, extensible, cross-platform, collaborative, and integrated system that can supplement information systems with hypermedia support. In this paper we propose a dynamically mapped open hypermedia system framework for evaluating this support. The framework has two axes: a logical component focus and an application requirement focus. Given this framework we first evaluate five open hypermedia systems and the World Wide Web, and then design our own system implemented on top of the World Wide Web. This paper also contributes guidelines for building mapping routines that provide supplemental hypermedia support (an alternate approach to those used in our DHE project).


Chiu, Chao-Min and Michael Bieber, "Toward Hypermedia Support for Information Relationship Management," Journal of Information Science, 27(2) 2001, 93-100.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/chiu/jis01.pdf

This paper presents an effort related to and elaborating upon Yoo & Bieber's Relationship-Navigation Analysis called Relationship-Navigation Rule Analysis. RNRA includes steps for writing mapping rules, and presents an alternate view of mapping rules from other work by Bieber.


Bhaumik, Anirban (*), Deepti Dixit (*), Roberto Galnares (*), Manolis Tzagarakis (*), Michalis Vaitis (*), Michael Bieber, Vincent Oria, Aparna Krishna (*), Qiang Lu (*), Firas Aljallad (*), Li Zhang (*), "Integrating Hypermedia Functionality into Database Applications," Developing Quality Complex Database Systems: Practices, Techniques and Technologies, Becker, Shirley (ed.), 2001.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/db-chapter.pdf

A review of our research efforts and future research agenda for supporting database applications with hypermedia support.
- extends "Towards Hypermedia Support for Database Systems" HICSS 2001


Bieber, Michael, "Hypertext," Encyclopedia of Computer Science (4th Edition), Ralston, A., Edwin Reilly and David Hemmendinger (eds.), Nature Publishing Group, 2000, 799-805. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/cs-encyclopedia/csencyclopedia00.pdf

A detailed definition of hypertext and hypermedia, as well as an overview of the associated research fields.


Vitali, Fabio and Bieber, Michael, "Hypermedia on the Web: What Will It Take?," ACM Computing Surveys, 31(4es), 1999.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/acmcs/cs-vb.html

Researchers in the hypermedia field often lament that the World Wide Web does not support many of hypermedia's rich structuring, navigation and annotation features. What would it take for everyday Web applications to be fully hypermedia compliant, now that the basic hypermedia building blocks exist on the Web? The following four capabilities are the most critical for integrating hypermedia support in the Web environment: editable browsers, storing document content and link anchors separately, external linkbases, and displaying link spans, node and link attributes. Individual developers can not decide autonomously on how to resolve many of the outstanding issues. Developers need agreed-upon conventions and tools built upon today's Web standards to fully incorporate hypermedia functionality into everyday applications.


Bieber, Michael, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and V. Balasubramanian, "Hypertext Functionality," ACM Computing Surveys, 31(4es), 1999.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/acmcs/cs-bob.html

This paper introduces a research subfield of both hypermedia and information systems. The Hypertext Functionality field studies techniques for and the impact of supplementing everyday computer applications with hypertext (or hypermedia) functionality (HTF). The HTF approach encourages system developers to think actively about an application's interrelationships, and whether users should access and navigate along these relationships directly. It views hypertext as value-added support functionality. The HTF approach fosters three major areas of research: using HTF to improve personal and organizational effectiveness, HTF and application design, and integrating HTF into applications.


Bieber, Michael, "Hypertext and Web Engineering," ACM Hypertext'98 Proceedings, ACM Press, Washington, D.C., June 1998, pages 277-278.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/bieber-ht98.pdf

A short paper (strongly refereed) describing our approach to automatically generating links with Web applications. Our approach to Web Engineering consists of a relationship analysis, which produces specifications for links which our DHE hypermedia engine project then automatically generates.


Chiu, Chao-Min (*) and Michael Bieber, "A Generic Dynamic-Mapping Wrapper for Open Hypertext System Support of Analytical Applications," ACM Hypertext'97 Proceedings, ACM Press, Washington, D.C., April 1997, pages 218-219. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/ht97pdf

This short paper (strongly refereed) explains an architecture for supplementing information systems with hypertext using the terminology and models of the open hypermedia systems (OHS) research field. This research should encourage more OHS support for computational applications.


Vitali, Fabio, Chao-Min Chiu (*) and Michael Bieber, "Extending HTML in a Principled Way with Displets," Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 1997.
[on-line] http://www.cs.unibo.it/~fabio/bio/papers/1997/WWW97/Displets/PAPER155.html

Displets provide authors and programmers with a way to freely extend the HTML language on a per-document basis in a principled manner. This would enable people to easily include special notations such as mathematics, music, charting, etc. Displets are Java classes that are activated while rendering an HTML document.


Bieber, Michael and Fabio Vitali, "Toward Support for Hypermedia on the World Wide Web" IEEE Computer 30(1), January 1997.
[on-line] http://www.cs.unibo.it/~fabio/bio/papers/1997/IEEEC97/January/IEEEC0197.html

In the rush to co-opt and retrofit applications on the Web, we risk the opportunity cost of bypassing its greatest supplemental benefit: ubiquitous hypermedia support. We consider hypermedia and Web integration from the point of view of an organization's MIS department and organization management.


Bieber, Michael, Fabio Vitali, Helen Ashman (*), V. Balasubramanian (*), and Harri Oinas-Kukkonen (*), "Fourth Generation Hypermedia: Some Missing Links for the World Wide Web" International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 47, 1997, 31-65.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/bva97.html

World Wide Web authors must cope in a hypermedia environment analogous to second- generation computing languages, building and managing all hypermedia links using simple anchors and single-step navigation. We present a set of third- and fourth- generation hypermedia functionalities and give some direction for implementing them.


Bieber, Michael, "Advancing Information Comprehension through Hypertext" Advances in Intelligent Hypertext, J. Mayfield & C. Nicholas (eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1997.

This chapter discusses many of the issues and experiences we encountered when creating the electronic version of the August 1995 special section in the Communications of the ACM.


Bieber, Michael and Charles Kacmar, "Designing Hypertext Support for Computational Applications" Communications of the ACM, 38(8), August 1995, 99-107.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/BK95.pdf

What considerations must designers face when incorporating hypertext as "secondary support functionality" to non hypertext-oriented information systems?


Bieber, Michael and Jiangling Wan (*), "Backtracking in a Multiple-window Hypertext Environment," Proceedings of the ACM European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies, Edinburgh, September 18-23, 1994, ACM. http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/bw94.pdf

How should hypertext systems handle backtracking among multiple windows containing different "logical" tasks, in a way that does not disorient the user?


Bieber, Michael, "Automating Hypermedia for Decision Support," Hypermedia, 4(2), 1992, pages 83-110.

A non-technical discussion of integrating hypermedia and DSS, and the challenges dynamic environments pose. In a technical appendix we demonstrate bridge laws, which dynamically map hypermedia to DSS applications.


Bieber, Michael P. and Steven O. Kimbrough, "On Generalizing the Concept of Hypertext," Management Information Systems Quarterly, 16(1), March 1992, pages 77-93.

A non-technical discussion of generalizing hypertext entities and link traversal. A sample DSS session illustrates the interaction among the DSS shell components.

 


(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, participatory learning, hypermedia & WWW, logic & dss, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

Hypermedia, Logic Modeling and Decision Support

Note: For more general papers concerning hypermedia, please see the section "Hypermedia and the WWW."

Our main focus on hypermedia has been generating links automatically within computational systems, i.e., systems that generate documents and display screens in response to user interaction. These include analytical systems such as decision support systems. This also includes many legacy systems. Links are not generated through lexical analysis, rather on a representation of the system's internal structure (or logic). Because hypermedia specifications must be defined in advance this means we have to model them in some manner. The publications in this section present our work in developing logic models of dynamic hypermedia support and our primary early application area of decision support systems.

Selected Possible Student Research/Ph.D. Projects

Selected Publications 

(*) denotes student author

 

Zhang, Li (*), Michael Bieber, David Millard and Vincent Oria, "Supporting Virtual Documents in Just-in-Time Hypermedia Systems," Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on Document Engineering, Milwaukee, 35-44, October 2004.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/zhang-doceng04.pdf

Many analytical or computational applications, especially legacy systems, create documents and display screens in response to user queries "dynamically" or "in real time". These "virtual documents" do not exist in advance, and thus hypermedia features must be generated "just in time" - automatically and dynamically. Conversely, the hypermedia features may have to cause target documents to be generated or re-generated. This paper focuses on the specific challenges faced in hypermedia support for virtual documents of dynamic hypermedia functionality, dynamic regeneration, and dynamic anchor re-identification and re-location. It presents a prototype called JHE (Just-in-time Hypermedia Engine) to support just-in-time hypermedia across third party applications with dynamic content, and discusses issues prompted by this research.


Bhaumik, Anirban (*), Deepti Dixit (*), Roberto Galnares (*), Manolis Tzagarakis (*), Michalis Vaitis (*), Michael Bieber, Vincent Oria, Aparna Krishna (*), Qiang Lu (*), Firas Aljallad (*), Li Zhang (*), "Integrating Hypermedia Functionality into Database Applications," Developing Quality Complex Database Systems: Practices, Techniques and Technologies, Becker, Shirley (ed.), 2001.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/db-chapter.pdf

A review of our research efforts and future research agenda for supporting database applications with hypermedia support.
- extends "Towards Hypermedia Support for Database Systems" HICSS 2001


Spasovic, Lazar, Michael Bieber and Athanassios Bladikas, "Multi-Modal Freight Transportation: Regional Data Development and Analysis," New Jersey Institute of Technology, Technical Report, 2000.

Describes various decision support tools and their hypermedia enhancements, applied to the area of freight transportation.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/freight00.pdf


Scherl, Richard, Michael Bieber and Fabio Vitali, "A Situation Calculus Model of Hypertext" Proceedings of the 31st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1998 (Logic Modeling Minitrack)
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/SBV98.pdf

We utilize the situation calculus to develop a logic model of hypertext systems. The situation calculus models the dynamic aspects of systems well.


Wan, Jiangling (*) and Michael Bieber, "Mapping Relational Database Management Systems to Hypertext" Proceedings of the 30th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1997, pages 160-166, (Volume 6, Hypermedia Minitrack).

A logic-based approach to integrating hypertext and relational database management systems (RDBMS) without any changes to the RDBMS.


Wan, Jiangling (*) and Michael Bieber, "GHMI: A General Hypertext Data Model Supporting Integration of Hypertext and Information Systems" Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Wailea, Maui; January 1996), IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., pages 47-56 (Volume 2, Logic Modeling Minitrack).

A Dexter-based logic model employing composites and bridge laws to map the independent domains of hypertext and non-hypertext information systems.
- builds upon the technique described in "A Logic-based Approach to Integrating Hypertext and Information Systems"


Bieber, Michael and Charles Kacmar, "Designing Hypertext Support for Computational Applications" Communications of the ACM, 38(8), August 1995, 99-107.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/BK95.pdf

What considerations must designers face when incorporating hypertext as "secondary support functionality" to non hypertext-oriented information systems?


Bieber, Michael, "On Integrating Hypermedia into Decision Support and Other Information Systems" Decision Support Systems 14, 1995, 251-267.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/Bi95/Bi95.html

A proposed architecture and minimal requirements for integrating a dynamic hypermedia engine with non-hypermedia interface-oriented and computationally-oriented information systems.
- supersedes "Issues in Modeling a 'Dynamic' Hypertext Interface"


Wan, Jiangling (*), Michael Bieber, Jason Wang and Peter A. Ng, "LHM: A Logic-based Hypertext Data Model for Integrating Hypertext and Information Systems," Proceedings of the 28th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1995, pages 350-359 (Volume 3, Logic Modeling Minitrack).

A logic model employing composites and bridge laws to map the independent domains of hypertext and document management.
- builds upon the model in "Document Management Through Hypertext: A Logic Modeling Approach"


Bieber, Michael and Steven O. Kimbrough, "On the Logic of Generalized Hypertext," Decision Support Systems 11, 1994, North Holland, 241-257.

A logic model of generalized hypertext components and link traversal.


Wan, Jiangling (*), Michael Bieber, Jason Wang and Peter A. Ng, "Document Management Through Hypertext: A Logic Modeling Approach," Proceedings of the 27th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1994, pages 558-568 (Volume 3, Logic Modeling Minitrack). [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wbwn94.pdf

How logic modeling can map two independent information system domains, such as hypertext and document management, through using bridge laws.


Bieber, Michael P. and Steven O. Kimbrough, "On Generalizing the Concept of Hypertext," Management Information Systems Quarterly, 16(1), March 1992, pages 77-93.

A non-technical discussion of generalizing hypertext entities and link traversal. A sample DSS session illustrates the interaction among the DSS shell components.


Bieber, Michael, Generalized Hypertext in a Knowledge-based DSS Shell Environment, Ph. D. Dissertation, Decision Sciences Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, 1990.

A thesis detailing the motivation for and development of a logic model of generalized hypertext-a dynamic view of hypertext supporting DSS applications at the system-level interface of a knowledge-based shell.


Kimbrough, Steven O., Clark Pritchett, Michael Bieber (*) and Hemant Bhargava (*), "The Coast Guard's KSS Project", Interfaces, 20(6), November/December 1990, pages 5-16.

A detailed introduction to the hypertext, model management, project management and decision support concepts motivating our prototype DSSs, and how these are assisting the U. S. Coast Guard.


Bhargava, Hemant K. (*), Michael P. Bieber (*) and Steven O. Kimbrough, "Oona, Max, and the WYWWYWI Principle: Generalized Hypertext and Model Management in a Symbolic Programming Environment," in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Information Systems, Minneapolis, 1988, pages 179-192. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/bbk88.pdf

How we integrated and implemented hypertext and model management concepts in two prototype DSSs, and why.

 


(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, participatory learning, hypermedia & WWW, logic & dss, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

Digital Libraries (and Systems Integration) Research

We've been fortunate to receive four federal grants to conduct digital library research. This research targets integrating digital library collections and services, and giving users customized access to these.


(digital library research: index, grants, presentations, student research projects, publications)

Digital Library Service Integration Grant (DLSI)

The Digital Library Service Integration (DLSI) project provides a systematic lightweight approach for integrating digital library collections and services. When the user clicks on an item within a digital library collection or service, DLSI automatically generates a set of links to related information and relevant services. The set of links is customized using collaborative filtering techniques, matching the current user's navigation to the "click streams" of other users.


(digital library research: index, grants, presentations, student research projects, publications)

IntLib Grant

The IntLib Grant focuses on integrating the resources of public libraries primarily (and university libraries secondarily) together with digital libraries. It builds upon the DLSI project.

The funding for the IntegraL and IntLib grants combined has enabled us to develop two additional aspects that both projects will then use: a next generation collaborative filtering engine and next generation federated search.


(digital library research: index, grants, presentations, student research projects, publications)

IntegraL Grant

The IntegraL Grant focuses on integrating specific resources of university libraries with those of the National Science Digital Library. It builds upon the DLSI project.

The funding for the IntegraL and IntLib grants combined has enabled us to develop two additional aspects that both projects will then use: a next generation collaborative filtering engine and next generation federated search.


(digital library research: index, grants, presentations, student research projects, publications)

General Recommendation Engine Grant (GRE)

The General Recommendation Engine (GRE) project has developed the next generation of recommender systems, and applied these within the National Science Digital Library. GRE supplements user's searches with sets of links that others have found useful. GRE developed and combined three next generation approaches to recommendations: collaborative-filtering, content-based recommendations and knowledge-based recommendations to craft the best set of links to related information.

Note that this differs from IntLib and IntegraL in that GRE's recommendations apply to user searching. IntLib and IntegraL's links are placed within regular content.


(digital library research: index, grants, presentations, student research projects, publications)

Selected Presentations and Handouts


(digital library research: index, grants, presentations, student research projects, publications)

Selected Possible Student Research/Ph.D. Projects


(digital library research: index, grants, presentations, student research projects, publications)

Selected Publications

(*) denotes student author

Ho, Shuyuan Mary, Michael Bieber, Min Song and Xiangmin Zhang, "Seeking Beyond with IntegraL: A User Study of Sense-Making Enabled by Anchor-based Virtual Integration of Library Systems," Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Volume 64, No. 9, 1927-1945.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/JASIST-2013-ho-bieber-song-zhang.pdf

This paper presents a user study showing the effectiveness of a linked-based, virtual integration infrastructure that gives users access to relevant online resources. IntegraL provides a lightweight approach to improve and augment search functionality by dynamically generating context-focused "anchors" for recognized elements of interest generated by library services. This paper includes a description of how IntegraL's design supports users' information-seeking behavior. A full user study with both objective and subjective measures of IntegraL, and hypothesis testing regarding IntegraL's effectiveness of the user's information seeking experience, is described along with data analysis, implications arising from this kind of virtual integration, and possible future directions.


Ho, Shuyuan Mary, Michael, Min Song and Michael Bieber, "IntegraL: The Effectiveness of a Link-based Federated Search Infrastructure," iConference 2010, 109-114.


Song, Min, Shuyuan Ho, Michael Bieber, Eric Koppel (*), Vahid Hamidullah (*) and Pawel Bokota (*), "A Scalable Digital Library Infrastructure Expands Search and Beyond," BookOnline 09, Corfu, Greece, October 2009.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/song09-bookonline.pdf


Song, Min and Michael Bieber, "IntegraL: Lightweight Link-based Integration of Heterogeneous Digital Library Collections and Services in the Deep Web," The Semantic Web meets the Deep Web workshop, in conjunction with IEEE Joint Conference on E-Commerce. Technology and Enterprise Computing, E-Commerce and E-Services 2008. 20-26.


Min Song, I-Y. Song, K. J. Lee and Michael Bieber Automatic Extraction of Creating a Lexical Repository of Abbreviations in the Biomedical Literature, 8th International Conference on Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery (DaWaK 2006).


Nnadi, Nkechi (*) and Michael Bieber, "Lightweight Integration of Documents and Services," Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on Document Engineering, Milwaukee, 51-53, October 2004.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/dlii-doceng04s-v11.pdf

The Digital Library Integration Infrastructure (DLII) provides a systematic lightweight approach for integrating digital library collections and services. Digital library systems generally require minimal or no changes to their code. Users see a totally integrated environment. They use their digital library system just as before. They also see extra link anchors. Selecting one generates a list of links to relevant metainformation (structural, content-based and knowledge-sharing relationships, and metadata). DLII generates the vast majority of supplemental link anchors and metainformation links automatically through the use of relationship rules. This paper presents the concept of metainformation, describes the DLII infrastructure and architecture, and explains how systems can integrate into the infrastructure. This research's primary contribution is providing a relatively straightforward, sustainable infrastructure for integrating digital library collections and services.


Bieber, Michael, Roberto Galnares (*) and Qiang Lu (*), Service Integration for Virtual Communities. Web Engineering Workshop, International World Wide Web 10 Conference, Hong Kong, May 2001.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/WWW10-workshop-services.doc

 


(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, participatory learning, hypermedia & WWW, logic & dss, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

Collaborative Discourse, Knowledge Sharing and Learning within Virtual Communities

A wide and growing research literature exists on developing and understanding virtual communities. The theories and techniques developed in the research literature, however, have never been tested or evaluated as an integrated whole. As part of this research, we shall use the Dynamic Hypermedia Engine (DHE) to integrate a series of knowledge sharing tools to support collaboration, knowledge-sharing and learning within distributed communities. Evaluation is also a vital element of this research.

Selected Presentations

Selected Possible Student Research/Ph.D. Projects

Selected Publications

Bieber, Michael, Douglas Engelbart, Richard Furuta, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, John Noll, Jenny Preece, Edward Stohr, Murray Turoff and Bartel Van De Walle, "Towards Virtual Community Knowledge Evolution," Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(4), Spring 2002, 11-36.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/jmis02.pdf

A review of our research efforts and future research agenda for supporting learning and knowledge sharing within virtual communities. The focus of this article is on the technological base, which vastly expands the paradigm of digital libraries.


Bieber, Michael, Il Im, Ron Rice, Ricki Goldman-Segall, Ravi Paul, Edward Stohr, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Jennifer Preece, Murray Turoff, "Towards Knowledge-Sharing and Learning in Virtual Professional Communities," Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2002, (Community Informatics Minitrack).
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/bieber-hicss02.pdf

A review of our research efforts and future research agenda for supporting learning and knowledge sharing within virtual communities. The focus of this paper is on the research paradigm to promote learning and knowledge sharing.


Turoff, Murray, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Michael Bieber, Brian Whitworth and Jerry Fjermestad, "Computer Mediated Communications for Group Support: Past and Future," (John Carroll, ed.) in Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium, Addison Wesley, 2001.

Approximately thirty years have passed since the first asynchronous group communication system became operational. While one may think the field has fully matured, that is not case. This paper emphasizes exploration of future R&D directions for Group Communications. It describes structuring of group communications through software that provides or supports analytical tools (that gather and analyze data), communication protocols, and human roles. Many of the ideas have had limited demonstrations in actual use. However, for various reasons to be discussed, we have not yet seen these ideas widely incorporated into current group communication systems. Hopefully the increasing computer literacy of users and their growing understanding of group communications will demand this.


Turoff, Murray, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Michael Bieber, Jerry Fjermestad and Ajaz Rana "Collaborative Discourse Structures in Computer Mediated Group Communications," Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 4(4), June 1999. [on-line] http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol4/issue4/turoff.html

This paper describes a potential integrated collaborative hypermedia environment supporting rich discourse within groups. Using application oriented conceptual maps to categorize the group discussion would be an advancement in the design of computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems to allow much larger groups to collaborate productively. The group meta-communication process should allow the group to modify and evolve these conceptual discourse templates.


Turoff, Murray, Jerry Fjermestad, Ajaz Rana, Michael Bieber and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, "Collaborative Hypermedia in Virtual Reality Systems," Proceedings of the Third Americas Conference of the Association of Information Systems, Indianapolis, August 15-17, 1997.

Combining multimedia, virtual reality, collaboration tools and semantic structuring through hypertext should make groups more effective. This paper describes a potential integrated collaborative hypermedia environment supporting rich discourse within groups.

 


Virtual Community Informatics

(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, hypermedia & WWW, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, participatory learning, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

Through my work with virtual communities, I have teamed up with Michael Gurstein to develop a new focus which we call "Virtual Community Informatics." Currently there is no formal interaction between the local community and the virtual community practitioners or research communities. Virtual Community Informatics, lies at these dual cross-roads: bringing together people concerned with local and virtual communities; and bringing together the researchers and practitioners (developers, leaders and participants) in these two domains

Web Sites

http://is.njit.edu/vci - in preparation

Seed Grant

 to be posted 

Selected Publications

Michael Bieber, Barbara McFall, Ronald Rice and Michael Gurstein, "Towards Systems Design for Supporting Enabling Communities," Journal of Community Informatics, 3(1), 2007, [online] http://www.ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/281/328.

Communities and community support systems should be designed to enable participants to work effectively towards conducting both collective and individual activities and achieving their goals. Such communities are called "Enabling Communities". Our focus is the "systems" that support community members in doing whichever tasks or activities they need or want to. These systems include processes, technology, information and people. This paper provides a framework for Supporting Enabling Communities (SEComm) in two major components: (1) Participant Support Systems (PaSS) and (2) Community Participation Levels (CPaL). Three case studies apply this framework to an emerging virtual community and a community of practice.

(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, participatory learning, hypermedia & WWW, logic & dss, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)


Systems Research

(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, hypermedia & WWW, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, participatory learning, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

Selected Publications

Michael Bieber, Barbara McFall, Ronald Rice and Michael Gurstein, "Towards Systems Design for Supporting Enabling Communities," Journal of Community Informatics, 3(1), 2007, [online] http://www.ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/281/328.

Communities and community support systems should be designed to enable participants to work effectively towards conducting both collective and individual activities and achieving their goals. Such communities are called "Enabling Communities". Our focus is the "systems" that support community members in doing whichever tasks or activities they need or want to. These systems include processes, technology, information and people. This paper provides a framework for Supporting Enabling Communities (SEComm) in two major components: (1) Participant Support Systems (PaSS) and (2) Community Participation Levels (CPaL). Three case studies apply this framework to an emerging virtual community and a community of practice.


(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, participatory learning, hypermedia & WWW, logic & dss, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

Relationship Analysis (Software Engineering)

Links on the World Wide Web implement relationships. Many relationships in information domains are implicit, and only become obvious through a systematic analysis. Many non-obvious relationships (as well as some more obvious ones) are often left out of application designs. Similarly, many Web sites in general are missing useful links. Relationship Analysis uniquely focuses on the relationships in a complex system or information domain. It provides a systematic analysis approach to determining the set of relevant objects and links, which then could be included in the design of a Web application, a Web interface to analytical, "legacy" and "back-office" applications, as well as non-Web applications.

Relationship Analysis has the potential to become a standard stage within several of the analysis methodologies that all large software engineering projects employ. We intend to strive towards getting Relationship Analysis diagrams included in the modeling standard for the software industry: Unified Modeling Language (UML).

Selected Presentations

Selected Possible Student Research/Ph.D. Projects

Seed Grant (2001)

Selected Publications

(*) denotes student author

Joseph Catanio and Michael Bieber, "Relationship Analysis: A Technique to Improve the Systems Analysis Process," submitted to the Journal of the AIS
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/Catanio_Bieber_JAIS_Submission.doc

This paper presents a new, theory-grounded model underlying Relationship Analysis as well as our experimental results. Relationship Analysis offers a systematic, domain-independent analysis technique specifically to determine a domain's relationship structure. The Relationship Analysis Model is the first theory-based taxonomy to classify relationships. A rigorous evaluation was conducted, including a formal experiment comparing novice and experienced analysts with and without Relationship Analysis. It was shown that the Relationship Analysis Process based on the model does provide a fuller and richer systems analysis, resulting in improved quality of class diagrams. It also was shown that Relationship Analysis enables analysts of varying experience levels to achieve class diagrams of similar quality. Relationship Analysis significantly enhances the systems analyst's effectiveness, especially in the area of relationship discovery and documentation, resulting in improved analysis and design artifacts.


Yoo, Joonhee, Joseph Catanio (*), Michael Bieber and Ravi Paul, "Relationship Analysis in Requirements Engineering," Requirements Engineering (2004) 9: 238–247.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/yoo2004.pdf

This paper describes Relationship Analysis, with a focus on how it can support the requirements engineering stage of systems analysis in the software engineering life cycle. Relationship analysis provides a systematic way of identifying useful relationships in application domains.


Catanio, Joseph (*) and Michael Bieber, "Relationship Analysis: A Technique To Enhance Systems Analysis For Web Development," Web Engineering: Principles and Techniques, Woojung Suh (ed.), Idea Group, 97-113, 2005.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/ra-we-chapter04.pdf

This paper describes Relationship Analysis and describes some of our future directions for grounding the approach in Guilford's Structure of Intellect theory. Relationship analysis provides a systematic way of identifying useful relationships in application domains.


Catanio, Joseph (*), Nkechi Nnadi (*), Li Zhang (*), Michael Bieber and Roberto Galnares, "Ubiquitous Metainformation and the WYWWYWI* Principle," Journal of Digital Information, 5(1), April 2004.
[on-line] http://jodi.tamu.edu/Articles/v05/i01/Catanio/ - http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wywwywi_v47.htm

* WYWWYWI - What you want, when you want it, pronounced "why why why"

Metainformation includes the structural relationships, content-based relationships, user-declared link-based relationships, and metadata around an element of interest. Combined, the metainformation goes a long way towards establishing the full semantics for (the meaning of and context around) a system's elements. We take a three-pronged approach to providing metainformation on a grand scale. First, we provide a systematic methodology for systems analysts to determine the relationships around elements of interest in their information domains - Relationship Analysis. Relationship Analysis will result in a comprehensive set of a domain's structural relationships. Second, we provide a Metainformation Engine, which automatically generates sets of structural and content-based relationships around elements of interest as links, as well as metadata within static and virtual documents. Third, we provide an infrastructure for widespread link-based services within both static and virtual documents. This approach provides the inspiration as well as a sound foundation for a ubiquitous embracing of the WYWWYWI principle in the everyday systems people use, both on the Web and beyond.


Catanio, Joseph (*), Ashish Ghoda (*), Atanu Pal (*), Joonhee Yoo (*), Michael Bieber, Il Im, Ravi Paul and Fahri Yetim, "Relationship Analysis: A Research Plan for Enhancing Systems Analysis For Web Development, " Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2003, (E-Commerce Systems Development Minitrack).
[doc] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/hicss03-ra.pdf

This paper presents a research agenda for further developing Relationship Analysis, a software engineering/systems analysis approach for discovering the relationships in a complex system.


Yoo, Joonhee (*) and Michael Bieber, "Finding Linking Opportunities through Relationship-based Analysis," Hypertext 2000 Proceedings, San Antonio, ACM Press, June 2000.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/ht00-yoo-bieber.pdf

This paper presents a general introduction to the Relationship Navigation Analysis (RNA). It provides a detailed example, and explores different aspects of RNA from the HICSS paper below.


Yoo, Joonhee (*) and Michael Bieber, "Towards a Relationship Navigation Analysis," Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2000, (Internet Minitrack). [pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/hicss00/INWEB02.pdf

This paper presents a general introduction to the Relationship Navigation Analysis (RNA). Many conceptual modeling and system design methodologies provide tools to help system designers to model the real world. No guidelines exist, however, for determining the relationships within conceptual domains or implementations. RNA, based on a generic relationship taxonomy, provides a systematic way of identifying useful relationships in application domains. Developers can then implement each relationship as a link. Viewing an application domain from the relationship management point of view and modeling from a philosophy of maximum access provides a unique vantage point for application design. We present RNA and its generic relationship taxonomy, describing their use for system analysis.


Bieber, Michael and Joonhee Yoo (*) "Hypermedia: A Design Philosophy," ACM Computing Surveys, 31(4es), 1999.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/acmcs/cs-yb.html

This paper is a somewhat unconventional, general introduction to the philosophy behind Relationship-Navigation Analysis (RNA). Few designers explicitly think about their applications' interrelationships. Designers appear not have a deep enough conceptualization of their domains to identify intuitive relationships and realize the full scope and interconnections within domains. RNA gives designers and developers an analysis tool to think about an information domain in terms of its interrelationships. RNA incorporates a complete taxonomy of generic relationship types that would apply to any application domain, and perhaps any system - computerized or not.


Van De Walle, Bartel and Michael Bieber, "Finding the Underlying Links within Analytical Applications," New Jersey Institute of Technology, Technical Report, 1999.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/vb99-www/VB99-www.html

When migrating applications to the World Wide Web, developers often do not take the opportunity to reengineer the applications for the Web environment.  Many applications thus have a paucity of links.  The Relationship-Navigation Analysis methodology helps designers better understand, as well as add a rich layer of meaningful hypermedia functionality to complex analytical applications. We illustrate with a multi-criteria decision model application, implemented in a decision analysis software toolkit.


Bieber, Michael and Fabio Vitali, "Toward Support for Hypermedia on the World Wide Web" IEEE Computer 30(1), January 1997.
[on-line] http://www.cs.unibo.it/~fabio/bio/papers/1997/IEEEC97/January/IEEEC0197.html

In the rush to co-opt and retrofit applications on the Web, we risk the opportunity cost of bypassing its greatest supplemental benefit: ubiquitous hypermedia support. We consider hypermedia and Web integration from the point of view of an organization's MIS department and organization management.

 


(top of page; pubs by research themes: intro, participatory learning, hypermedia & WWW, logic & dss, dig lib, virtual communities, vc informatics, relationship analysis, ed software, closing note; pubs sorted by type)

Research Interests: A Closing Note

(return to index at top of page)

The field of Information Systems strongly influences my work. I define Computer Science as the study of making information technology efficient, and Information Systems as the study of applying information technology effectively. Thus much of my work focuses on how concepts and technologies best can serve people and organizations. Through all of my research runs a common thread of enabling people - those using everyday applications on the World Wide Web, virtual communities, local communities, educators and students.




Publications Sorted by Publication Type

(return to index at top of page)


Refereed Journal Articles (primary author)

((*) student author; see also Refereed Journal Articles (secondary author); and to top of page)

Michael Bieber, Barbara McFall, Ronald Rice and Michael Gurstein, "Towards Systems Design for Supporting Enabling Communities," Journal of Community Informatics, 3(1), 2007, [online] http://www.ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/281/328.

Communities and community support systems should be designed to enable participants to work effectively towards conducting both collective and individual activities and achieving their goals. Such communities are called "Enabling Communities". Our focus is the "systems" that support community members in doing whichever tasks or activities they need or want to. These systems include processes, technology, information and people. This paper provides a framework for Supporting Enabling Communities (SEComm) in two major components: (1) Participant Support Systems (PaSS) and (2) Community Participation Levels (CPaL). Three case studies apply this framework to an emerging virtual community and a community of practice.


Bieber, Michael, Douglas Engelbart, Richard Furuta, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, John Noll, Jenny Preece, Edward Stohr, Murray Turoff and Bartel Van De Walle, "Towards Virtual Community Knowledge Evolution," Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(4), Spring 2002, 11-36.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/jmis02.pdf

A review of our research efforts and future research agenda for supporting learning and knowledge sharing within virtual communities. The focus of this article is on the technological base, which vastly expands the paradigm of digital libraries.


Bieber, Michael, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and V. Balasubramanian, "Hypertext Functionality," ACM Computing Surveys, 31(4es), 1999.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/acmcs/cs-bob.html

This paper introduces a research subfield of both hypermedia and information systems. The Hypertext Functionality field studies techniques for and the impact of supplementing everyday computer applications with hypertext (or hypermedia) functionality (HTF). The HTF approach encourages system developers to think actively about an application's interrelationships, and whether users should access and navigate along these relationships directly. It views hypertext as value-added support functionality. The HTF approach fosters three major areas of research: using HTF to improve personal and organizational effectiveness, HTF and application design, and integrating HTF into applications.


Bieber, Michael and Joonhee Yoo (*) "Hypermedia: A Design Philosophy," ACM Computing Surveys, 31(4es), 1999.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/acmcs/cs-yb.html

This paper is a somewhat unconventional, general introduction to the philosophy behind Relationship-Navigation Analysis (RNA). Few designers explicitly think about their applications' interrelationships. Designers appear not have a deep enough conceptualization of their domains to identify intuitive relationships and realize the full scope and interconnections within domains. RNA gives designers and developers an analysis tool to think about an information domain in terms of its interrelationships. RNA incorporates a complete taxonomy of generic relationship types that would apply to any application domain, and perhaps any system - computerized or not.


Bieber, Michael and Fabio Vitali, "Toward Support for Hypermedia on the World Wide Web" IEEE Computer 30(1), January 1997.
[on-line] http://www.cs.unibo.it/~fabio/bio/papers/1997/IEEEC97/January/IEEEC0197.html

In the rush to co-opt and retrofit applications on the Web, we risk the opportunity cost of bypassing its greatest supplemental benefit: ubiquitous hypermedia support. We consider hypermedia and Web integration from the point of view of an organization's MIS department and organization management.


Bieber, Michael, Fabio Vitali, Helen Ashman (*), V. Balasubramanian (*), and Harri Oinas-Kukkonen (*), "Fourth Generation Hypermedia: Some Missing Links for the World Wide Web" International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 47, 1997, 31-65.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/bva97.html

World Wide Web authors must cope in a hypermedia environment analogous to second- generation computing languages, building and managing all hypermedia links using simple anchors and single-step navigation. We present a set of third- and fourth- generation hypermedia functionalities and give some direction for implementing them.


Bieber, Michael, "On Integrating Hypermedia into Decision Support and Other Information Systems" Decision Support Systems 14, 1995, 251-267.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/Bi95/Bi95.html

A proposed architecture and minimal requirements for integrating a dynamic hypermedia engine with non-hypermedia interface-oriented and computationally-oriented information systems.
- supersedes "Issues in Modeling a 'Dynamic' Hypertext Interface"


Bieber, Michael and Charles Kacmar, "Designing Hypertext Support for Computational Applications" Communications of the ACM, 38(8), August 1995, 99-107.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/BK95.pdf

What considerations must designers face when incorporating hypertext as "secondary support functionality" to non hypertext-oriented information systems?


Bieber, Michael and Tomás Isakowitz, "Text Editing and Beyond: A Study in Logic Modeling," Decision Support Systems 11, 1994, North Holland, 219-240.

A study of logic modeling as a technique for modeling and testing information systems.


Bieber, Michael and Steven O. Kimbrough, "On the Logic of Generalized Hypertext," Decision Support Systems 11, 1994, North Holland, 241-257.

A logic model of generalized hypertext components and link traversal.


Bieber, Michael, "Automating Hypermedia for Decision Support," Hypermedia, 4(2), 1992, pages 83-110.

A non-technical discussion of integrating hypermedia and DSS, and the challenges dynamic environments pose. In a technical appendix we demonstrate bridge laws, which dynamically map hypermedia to DSS applications.


Bieber, Michael P. and Steven O. Kimbrough, "On Generalizing the Concept of Hypertext," Management Information Systems Quarterly, 16(1), March 1992, pages 77-93.

A non-technical discussion of generalizing hypertext entities and link traversal. A sample DSS session illustrates the interaction among the DSS shell components.


Refereed Journal Articles (secondary author)

((*) student author; see also Refereed Journal Articles (primary author); and to top of page)

Ho, Shuyuan Mary, Michael Bieber, Min Song and Xiangmin Zhang, "Seeking Beyond with IntegraL: A User Study of Sense-Making Enabled by Anchor-based Virtual Integration of Library Systems," Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Volume 64, No. 9, 1927-1945.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/JASIST-2013-ho-bieber-song-zhang.pdf

This paper presents a user study showing the effectiveness of a linked-based, virtual integration infrastructure that gives users access to relevant online resources. IntegraL provides a lightweight approach to improve and augment search functionality by dynamically generating context-focused "anchors" for recognized elements of interest generated by library services. This paper includes a description of how IntegraL's design supports users' information-seeking behavior. A full user study with both objective and subjective measures of IntegraL, and hypothesis testing regarding IntegraL's effectiveness of the user's information seeking experience, is described along with data analysis, implications arising from this kind of virtual integration, and possible future directions.


Dezhi Wu, Starr Roxanne Hiltz and Michael Bieber, "Acceptance of Educational Technology: Field Studies of Asynchronous Participatory Examinations," Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS), Vol. 26, No. 21, 2010, pp. 451-476. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wu-cais-2010.pdf

This research develops and applies an extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to student acceptance of online participatory examinations. Participatory exams provide learning opportunities by engaging students in the entire examination life cycle, including creating and solving problems, and grading solutions. Asynchronous learning technologies support the new participatory exam processes. Analysis of post-course student questionnaires supports the premises that students perceive that they learn from all stages of the cooperative exam process, and that acceptance of this new type of assessment procedure is a function of both intrinsic motivations (e.g., enjoyment of the experience) and extrinsic motivations (e.g., perception that one has learned from the process).


Zhang, Li; Bieber, Michael; Song, Min; Oria, Vincent; Millard, David, "Supplementing virtual documents with just-in-time hypermedia functionality," International Journal on Digital Libraries, Vol. 11 No. 3, 2010, pp. 155-168. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/zhang10-ijdl.pdf

Digital library systems and other analytic or computational applications create documents and display screens in response to user queries "dynamically" or in "real time." These "virtual documents" do not exist in advance, and thus hypermedia features (links, comments, and bookmark anchors) must be generated "just in time" - automatically and dynamically. In addition, accessing the hypermedia features may cause target documents to be generated or re-generated. This article describes the specific challenges for virtual documents and dynamic hypermedia functionality: dynamic regeneration, and dynamic anchor re-identification and re-location. It presents Just-in-time Hypermedia Engine to support just-in-time hypermedia across digital library and other third-party applications with dynamic content, and discusses issues prompted by this research.


Dezhi Wu, Michael Bieber and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, "Asynchronous Participatory Exams: Internet Innovation for Engaging Students," IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2009, pp. 44-50. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wu_ieee_ic-2009.pdf

The Asynchronous Learning Networks Participatory Examination (APE) is a constructivist approach that fully engages students in the entire exam life cycle. This paper reports on a case study with 240 graduate students for five semesters. Our study results show that APE is an effective and innovative online assessment approach. We invite our colleagues at all levels to join us by "going APE" and liberating their classes from traditional, objectivist examinations.


Dezhi Wu, Michael Bieber and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, "Engaging Students with Constructivist Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks," Journal of Information Systems Education, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2008, pp. 321-330. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wbh08-jise.pdf

This research develops and applies an extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to student acceptance of online participatory examinations. Participatory exams provide learning opportunities by engaging students in the entire examination life cycle, including creating and solving problems, and grading solutions. Asynchronous learning technologies support the new participatory exam processes. Analysis of post-course student questionnaires supports the premises that students perceive that they learn from all stages of the cooperative exam process, and that acceptance of this new type of assessment procedure is a function of both intrinsic motivations (e.g., enjoyment of the experience) and extrinsic motivations (e.g., perception that one has learned from the process).


Shen, Jia, Roxanne Hiltz and Michael Bieber, "Learning Strategies in Online Collaborative Examinations," IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, Volume 51, No. 1, March 2008, 63 - 78. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/shb08_ieee_pc.pdf

New forms of computer-mediated, online learning can benefit from new forms of assessment that fit the medium and the pedagogical style of the online environment. This paper investigates students' learning styles and learning strategies in taking online collaborative exams. Applying constructivist and collaborative learning theories, the Collaborative Examination features students’ active participation in various phases of the exam process through small group activities online. Students' learning strategies, including deep learning and collaborative learning, are investigated using a 1*3 field experiment to compare the team-based Collaborative online Exam with the Traditional in-class exam and with the Participatory Exam, where students participate in the online exam processes individually. Data analysis using results from 485 students indicates that collaborative examinations significantly reduced surface learning in exam study, and enhanced interactions and the sense of an online learning community. The results also suggest learning predispositions were significantly correlated with exam study strategies, and provide indications of their effects on learning strategies.


Avery Gomez, Elizabeth, Dezhi Wu, Katia Passerini, and Michael Bieber, "Utilizing Web Tools for Computer-Mediated Communication to Enhance Team-based Learning," International Journal of Web-based Learning and Teaching Technologies, Idea Group Publishing, Vol. 2, No. 2, April - June 2007, 21-37.


Shen, Jia, Roxanne Hiltz and Michael Bieber, "Collaborative Online Examinations: Impacts on Interaction, Learning, and Student Satisfaction," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, Volume 36, No. 6, November 2006, 1045-1053. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/IEEESMCA-2006.pdf

This paper presents the results of a field experiment on online examinations facilitated by collaboration support systems. In particular, it examines collaborative learning and virtual teams through online examinations as an assessment procedure, compared to traditional examinations. Assessment increasingly is regarded as an important part of the learning process. Applying constructivism and collaborative learning theories, the Collaborative Examination process features students’ active participation in various phases of the exam process through small group activities online. A 1*3 field experiment evaluated the collaborative online exam compared with the traditional in-class exam, and the Participatory Exam where students participated in the online exam processes without groups. Data analysis using results from 485 students indicates that collaborative examinations significantly enhance interactions and the sense of an online learning community, and result in significantly higher levels of perceived learning.


Shen, Jia, Michael Bieber and Roxanne Hiltz, "Participatory Examinations in Asynchronous Learning Networks: Longitudinal Evaluation Results," Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp. 93-113, October 2005. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/jaln2006.pdf

This paper presents longitudinal evaluation results for an online participatory examination process in an information systems course over three semesters. The exam process includes students making up questions, answering other students‚ questions, grading answers to questions they author, and appealing the grades. The surveys following each exam elicited students‚ feedback, and an experiment compared the participatory exam with the traditional exam in the third semester. Survey results reveal that the majority of students have favorable attitudes towards the participatory exam, and would recommend the participatory examination for future courses. Students in the participatory exam enjoyed the process significantly more than students in the traditional exam, and have higher overall preference for the exam mode, although their perceived learning and perceived fairness in grading are lower than with the traditional exam. Discussion and future research on this topic are also presented.


Yoo, Joonhee, Joseph Catanio (*), Michael Bieber and Ravi Paul, "Relationship Analysis in Requirements Engineering," Requirements Engineering (2004) 9: 238–247.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/yoo2004.pdf

This paper describes our current research achievements in the area of Relationship Analysis, with a focus on how it can support the requirements engineering stage of systems analysis in the software engineering life cycle. Relationship analysis provides a systematic way of identifying useful relationships in application domains.


Catanio, Joseph (*), Nkechi Nnadi (*), Li Zhang (*), Michael Bieber and Roberto Galnares, "Ubiquitous Metainformation and the WYWWYWI* Principle," Journal of Digital Information, 5(1), April 2004.
[on-line] http://jodi.tamu.edu/Articles/v05/i01/Catanio/ - http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wywwywi_v47.htm

* WYWWYWI - What you want, when you want it, pronounced "why why why"

Metainformation includes the structural relationships, content-based relationships, user-declared link-based relationships, and metadata around an element of interest. Combined, the metainformation goes a long way towards establishing the full semantics for (the meaning of and context around) a system's elements. We take a three-pronged approach to providing metainformation on a grand scale. First, we provide a systematic methodology for systems analysts to determine the relationships around elements of interest in their information domains - Relationship Analysis. Relationship Analysis will result in a comprehensive set of a domain's structural relationships. Second, we provide a Metainformation Engine, which automatically generates sets of structural and content-based relationships around elements of interest as links, as well as metadata within static and virtual documents. Third, we provide an infrastructure for widespread link-based services within both static and virtual documents. This approach provides the inspiration as well as a sound foundation for a ubiquitous embracing of the WYWWYWI principle in the everyday systems people use, both on the Web and beyond.


Balasubramanian, V., Michael Bieber and Tomás Isakowitz, "Systematic Hypermedia Design," Information Systems Journal, 26(4), 2001, 295-320.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/isj01.pdf

A systematic approach to designing and implementing a hypermedia interface to a relational database system.


Chiu, Chao-Min and Michael Bieber, "A Dynamically Mapped Open Hypermedia System Framework for Integrating Information Systems," Information and Software Technology, 43, 2001, 75-86.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/chiu/ist01.pdf

The overall goal of this research is to design a distributed, extensible, cross-platform, collaborative, and integrated system that can supplement information systems with hypermedia support. In this paper we propose a dynamically mapped open hypermedia system framework for evaluating this support. The framework has two axes: a logical component focus and an application requirement focus. Given this framework we first evaluate five open hypermedia systems and the World Wide Web, and then design our own system implemented on top of the World Wide Web. This paper also contributes guidelines for building mapping routines that provide supplemental hypermedia support (an alternate approach to those used in our DHE project).


Chiu, Chao-Min and Michael Bieber, "Toward Hypermedia Support for Information Relationship Management," Journal of Information Science, 27(2) 2001, 93-100.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/chiu/jis01.pdf

This paper presents an effort related to and elaborating upon Yoo & Bieber's Relationship-Navigation Analysis called Relationship-Navigation Rule Analysis. RNRA includes steps for writing mapping rules, and presents an alternate view of mapping rules from other work by Bieber.


Vitali, Fabio and Bieber, Michael, "Hypermedia on the Web: What Will It Take?," ACM Computing Surveys, 31(4es), 1999.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/acmcs/cs-vb.html

Researchers in the hypermedia field often lament that the World Wide Web does not support many of hypermedia's rich structuring, navigation and annotation features. What would it take for everyday Web applications to be fully hypermedia compliant, now that the basic hypermedia building blocks exist on the Web? The following four capabilities are the most critical for integrating hypermedia support in the Web environment: editable browsers, storing document content and link anchors separately, external linkbases, and displaying link spans, node and link attributes. Individual developers can not decide autonomously on how to resolve many of the outstanding issues. Developers need agreed-upon conventions and tools built upon today's Web standards to fully incorporate hypermedia functionality into everyday applications.


Turoff, Murray, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Michael Bieber, Jerry Fjermestad and Ajaz Rana "Collaborative Discourse Structures in Computer Mediated Group Communications," Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 4(4), June 1999. [on-line] http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol4/issue4/turoff.html

This paper describes a potential integrated collaborative hypermedia environment supporting rich discourse within groups. Using application oriented conceptual maps to categorize the group discussion would be an advancement in the design of computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems to allow much larger groups to collaborate productively. The group meta-communication process should allow the group to modify and evolve these conceptual discourse templates.


Vitali, Fabio, Chao-Min Chiu (*) and Michael Bieber, "Extending HTML in a Principled Way with Displets," Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 1997.
[on-line] http://www.cs.unibo.it/~fabio/bio/papers/1997/WWW97/Displets/PAPER155.html

Displets provide authors and programmers with a way to freely extend the HTML language on a per-document basis in a principled manner. This would enable people to easily include special notations such as mathematics, music, charting, etc. Displets are Java classes that are activated while rendering an HTML document.


Hao, Xialong (*), Jason T.L. Wang, Michael Bieber and Peter A. Ng, "Heuristic Classification of Office Documents", International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, 1995, pages 233-265.

A method for classifying scanned and other electronic documents based on their layout.


Kimbrough, Steven O., Clark Pritchett, Michael Bieber (*) and Hemant Bhargava (*), "The Coast Guard's KSS Project", Interfaces, 20(6), November/December 1990, pages 5-16.

A detailed introduction to the hypertext, model management, project management and decision support concepts motivating our prototype DSSs, and how these are assisting the U. S. Coast Guard.


Book Chapters

((*) student author; to top of page)

Catanio, Joseph (*) and Michael Bieber, "Relationship Analysis: A Technique To Enhance Systems Analysis For Web Development," Web Engineering: Principles and Techniques, Woojung Suh (ed.), Idea Group, 97-113, 2005.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/ra-we-chapter04.pdf

This paper describes Relationship Analysis and describes some of our future directions for grounding the approach in Guilford's Structure of Intellect theory. Relationship analysis provides a systematic way of identifying useful relationships in application domains.


Turoff, Murray, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Michael Bieber, Brian Whitworth and Jerry Fjermestad, "Computer Mediated Communications for Group Support: Past and Future," (John Carroll, ed.) in Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium, Addison Wesley, 2001.

Approximately thirty years have passed since the first asynchronous group communication system became operational. While one may think the field has fully matured, that is not case. This paper emphasizes exploration of future R&D directions for Group Communications. It describes structuring of group communications through software that provides or supports analytical tools (that gather and analyze data), communication protocols, and human roles. Many of the ideas have had limited demonstrations in actual use. However, for various reasons to be discussed, we have not yet seen these ideas widely incorporated into current group communication systems. Hopefully the increasing computer literacy of users and their growing understanding of group communications will demand this.


Bhaumik, Anirban (*), Deepti Dixit (*), Roberto Galnares (*), Manolis Tzagarakis (*), Michalis Vaitis (*), Michael Bieber, Vincent Oria, Aparna Krishna (*), Qiang Lu (*), Firas Aljallad (*), Li Zhang (*), "Integrating Hypermedia Functionality into Database Applications," Developing Quality Complex Database Systems: Practices, Techniques and Technologies, Becker, Shirley (ed.), 2001.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/db-chapter.pdf

A review of our research efforts and future research agenda for supporting database applications with hypermedia support.
- extends "Towards Hypermedia Support for Database Systems" HICSS 2001


Yoo, Joonhee (*) and Bieber, Michael, "A Systematic Relationship Analysis for Modeling Information Domains" in Information Modeling in the New Millennium, Matti Rossi & Keng Siau (eds.), Idea Group, 2001.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/millenium-v3.pdf

This chapter introduces the Relationship Navigation Analysis methodology.


Bieber, Michael, "Advancing Information Comprehension through Hypertext" Advances in Intelligent Hypertext, J. Mayfield & C. Nicholas (eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1997.

This chapter discusses many of the issues and experiences we encountered when creating the electronic version of the August 1995 special section in the Communications of the ACM.


Conference Proceedings (strongly refereed; primary author)

(See also Conference Proceedings (strongly refereed; secondary author); (*) student author; and to top of page)

Bieber, Michael, Il Im, Ron Rice, Ricki Goldman-Segall, Ravi Paul, Edward Stohr, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Jennifer Preece, Murray Turoff, "Towards Knowledge-Sharing and Learning in Virtual Professional Communities," Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2002, (Community Informatics Minitrack).
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/bieber-hicss02.pdf

A review of our research efforts and future research agenda for supporting learning and knowledge sharing within virtual communities. The focus of this paper is on the research paradigm to promote learning and knowledge sharing.


Bieber, Michael, Douglas Engelbart, Richard Furuta, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, John Noll, Jenny Preece, Edward Stohr, Murray Turoff and Bartel Van De Walle, "Virtual Community Knowledge Evolution," Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2001, (Community Informatics Minitrack).
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/hicss01/hicss01-ckess.pdf

A review of our research efforts and future research agenda for supporting learning and knowledge sharing within virtual communities. The focus of this paper is on the technological base, which vastly expands the paradigm of digital libraries.


Bieber, Michael, "Hypertext and Web Engineering," ACM Hypertext'98 Proceedings, ACM Press, Washington, D.C., June 1998, pages 277-278.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/bieber-ht98.pdf

A short paper (strongly refereed) describing our approach to automatically generating links with Web applications. Our approach to Web Engineering consists of a relationship analysis, which produces specifications for links which our DHE hypermedia engine project then automatically generates.


Bieber, Michael, Tomás Isakowitz and James Oliver (*), "An Analysis Framework for Information Comprehension and Access Management," Proceedings of the 28th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1995, pages 604-613 (Volume 4, Internet Minitrack).

Introducing the new interdisciplinary field of "Information Comprehension and Access Management," dealing with the technical, managerial and policy issues concerning information representation, extraction and distribution.


Bieber, Michael and Jiangling Wan (*), "Backtracking in a Multiple-window Hypertext Environment," Proceedings of the ACM European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies, Edinburgh, September 18-23, 1994, ACM. http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/bw94.pdf

How should hypertext systems handle backtracking among multiple windows containing different "logical" tasks, in a way that does not disorient the user?


Bieber, Michael, "Issues in Modeling a 'Dynamic' Hypertext Interface," Hypertext '91 Proceedings, San Antonio, December 15-18, 1991, ACM, pages 203-218.

A proposed architecture using a dynamic hypertext engine to connect non-hypertext interface-oriented and computationally-oriented information systems. Includes a short discussion of document interchange.


Conference Proceedings (strongly refereed; secondary author)

(See also Conference Proceedings (strongly refereed, primary author); (*) student author; and to top of page)

Ho, Shuyuan, Min Song and Michael Bieber, M., "IntegraL: The Effectiveness of a Link-based Federated Search Infrastructure," iConference 2010, 109-114.


Song, Min, Shuyuan Ho, Michael Bieber, Eric Koppel (*), Vahid Hamidullah (*) and Pawel Bokota (*), "A Scalable Digital Library Infrastructure Expands Search and Beyond," BookOnline 09, Corfu, Greece, October 2009.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/song09-bookonline.pdf


Min Song, I-Y. Song, K. J. Lee and Michael Bieber Automatic Extraction of Creating a Lexical Repository of Abbreviations in the Biomedical Literature, 8th International Conference on Data Warehousing and Knowledge Discovery (DaWaK 2006).


Gomez, Elizabeth Avery (*), Dezhi Wu, Katia Passerini, and Michael Bieber "Introducing Computer Supported Team-Based Learning: Preliminary Outcomes and Learning Impacts," Information Resources Management Association (IRMA), May 2006.


Gomez, Elizabeth Avery (*), Dezhi Wu, Katia Passerini, and Michael Bieber, "Computer-Supported Learning Strategies: An Implementation and Assessment Framework for Team-Based Learning," ISOneWorld, April 2006.


Wong-Bushby, Irene (*), Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Katia Passerini, Michael Bieber and Karen Patten (*),"Scaffolding Discourse in Asynchronous Learning Networks," Proceedings of the Eleventh Americas Conference on Information Systems, Omaha, August 2005, 586-591.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wb-ais2005.pdf

Discourse, a form of collaborative learning, is fundamentally a communications process. This in-progress study adapts Clark and Brennan's grounding in communications principles to investigate how to "scaffold" asynchronous discourse. Scaffolding is defined as providing support for the learner at his or her level until the support is no longer needed. This paper presents early results from an experimental study measuring learning effectiveness. In the experiment, content and process scaffolding are manipulated based on pedagogic principles. A major contribution of the study is building and testing a technologymediated, discourse-centered, teaching and learning model called the Asynchronous Learning Networks Cognitive Discourse Model (ALNCDM). As discourse is one of the most widely used online methods of teaching and learning, the results of the study are expected to add to the body of knowledge on how to structure asynchronous online discourse assignments for more effective student learning.


Avery Gomez, Elizabeth (*) and Michael Bieber, "Towards Active Team-Based Learning: An Online Instructional Strategy," Proceedings of the Eleventh Americas Conference on Information Systems, Omaha, August 2005, 728-734.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/gomez-ais2005.pdf

Team-based Learning (TBL) is a relatively new pedagogic approach to teaching that makes extensive use of intensive, interactive team activities in the classroom to deepen learning. To date, TBL has been deployed almost entirely in traditional on-campus classes. This paper outlines a strategy and preliminary framework to enhance team communication and strengthen group dynamics, leveraging online tools to support TBL techniques, empowering online students in active learning. It is vital to utilize technology effectively to structure the online classroom in a manner that best supports TBL's deep learning experiences. The major contributions of this research will be to extend techniques from TBL approaches to the online groupsupport environment and to describe effective technological support.


Wong-Bushby, Irene (*), Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Michael Bieber, Katia Passerini, Naomi Rotter and Karen Swan, "Using Content and Process Scaffolds to Support Collaborative Discourse in Asynchronous Learning Networks," Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2005.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wb-hicss2005.pdf

Discourse, a form of collaborative learning, is one of the most widely used methods of teaching and learning in the online environment. Particularly in large courses, discourse needs to be "structured" to be effective. This in-progress study investigates how to "scaffold" asynchronous discourse based on the Asynchronous Learning Networks Cognitive Discourse Model (ALNCDM). The ALNCDM is an adaptation of Clark and Brennan's grounding in communications principles within a technology- mediated learning environment. The model applies content and process scaffolding based on pedagogic principles. The study is a 2 X 2 design measuring learning effectiveness. Results of a pilot study are described. A major contribution of the study is building and testing a technology-mediated, discourse-centered, teaching and learning model called the ALNCDM.


Nnadi, Nkechi (*) and Michael Bieber, "Lightweight Integration of Documents and Services," Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on Document Engineering, Milwaukee, 51-53, October 2004.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/dlii-doceng04s-v11.pdf

The Digital Library Integration Infrastructure (DLII) provides a systematic lightweight approach for integrating digital library collections and services. Digital library systems generally require minimal or no changes to their code. Users see a totally integrated environment. They use their digital library system just as before. They also see extra link anchors. Selecting one generates a list of links to relevant metainformation (structural, content-based and knowledge-sharing relationships, and metadata). DLII generates the vast majority of supplemental link anchors and metainformation links automatically through the use of relationship rules. This paper presents the concept of metainformation, describes the DLII infrastructure and architecture, and explains how systems can integrate into the infrastructure. This research's primary contribution is providing a relatively straightforward, sustainable infrastructure for integrating digital library collections and services.


Zhang, Li (*), Michael Bieber, David Millard and Vincent Oria, "Supporting Virtual Documents in Just-in-Time Hypermedia Systems," Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on Document Engineering, Milwaukee, 35-44, October 2004.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/zhang-doceng04.pdf

Many analytical or computational applications, especially legacy systems, create documents and display screens in response to user queries "dynamically" or "in real time". These "virtual documents" do not exist in advance, and thus hypermedia features must be generated "just in time" - automatically and dynamically. Conversely, the hypermedia features may have to cause target documents to be generated or re-generated. This paper focuses on the specific challenges faced in hypermedia support for virtual documents of dynamic hypermedia functionality, dynamic regeneration, and dynamic anchor re-identification and re-location. It presents a prototype called JHE (Just-in-time Hypermedia Engine) to support just-in-time hypermedia across third party applications with dynamic content, and discusses issues prompted by this research.


Shen, Jia (*), Kung-E Cheng (*), Michael Bieber and S. Roxanne Hiltz, "Traditional In-class Examination vs. Collaborative Online Examination in Asynchronous Learning Networks: Field Evaluation Results, " Proceedings of the Americas Conference on Information Systems, New York, August 2004, 2998-3008; Best Paper Nomination
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/Shen-AMCIS2004.pdf

Online courses make possible new forms of working and learning together that would be difficult or impossible to use in the classroom-based course. This paper presents field evaluation results comparing the traditional in-class examination and the collaborative online examination using asynchronous learning networks (ALN) in a graduate-level course in a U.S. university. The collaborative online exam includes students making up questions, answering, grading, and appealing the grades. A 1x2 field experiment was designed to evaluate the collaborative exam in comparison with a traditional in-class exam. Survey results (response rate = 81.6%) show an overall favorable attitude towards the collaborative exam, including enjoyability of the exam process, perceived learning, satisfaction, and recommendation for future courses. Significant correlations and differences are found among factors and between the two exam modes. Students' concerns as well as plans for future research are also discussed.


Wu, Dezhi (*), Michael Bieber, S. Roxanne Hiltz and Hyo-Joo Han, "Constructivist Learning with Participatory Examinations, " Proceedings of the 37th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2004, (Advances in Teaching and Learning Technologies Minitrack), Best Paper Nomination
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/PID25671.pdf

This paper extends our prior reports on the Collaborative Examinations, presenting the process framework, our research model and further experimental results. The participatory exam process provides opportunities for students to learn from creating, reading, answering and grading exam questions. An on-line asynchronous learning network system facilitates the process. A majority of students preferred the participatory exam and believed that it increased their learning.


Catanio, Joseph (*), Ashish Ghoda (*), Atanu Pal (*), Joonhee Yoo (*), Michael Bieber, Il Im, Ravi Paul and Fahri Yetim, "Relationship Analysis: A Research Plan for Enhancing Systems Analysis For Web Development, " Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2003, (E-Commerce Systems Development Minitrack).
[doc] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/hicss03-ra.pdf

This paper presents a research agenda for further developing Relationship Analysis, a software engineering/systems analysis approach for discovering the relationships in a complex system.


Chiu, Chao-Min, Michael Bieber and Qiang Lu, "Towards Integrating Hypermedia on the Web," Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2002, (Managing Information on the Web Minitrack).
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/chiu-hicss02.pdf

This paper presents a framework for discussing issues and questions around Web Information Systems. WIS dynamically generate their contents, and thus require some mechanism to automatically infer metadata about WIS objects, infer access to relationships (i.e., links) among information objects, and provide hypermedia functionality. The framework focuses on integrating information systems into the Web and providing hypermedia functionality to them.


Shen, Jia (*), Roxanne Hiltz, Kung-E Cheng (*), Yooncheong Cho (*), Michael Bieber, "Collaborative Examinations for Asynchronous Learning Networks: Evaluation Results," Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2001, (Asynchronous Learning Networks Minitrack).
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/hicss01/hicss01-collab-midterm.pdf

This describes a new kind of on-line examination procedure, which would serve both distance and on-campus students. The "collaborative exam" engages students in a much broader range of learning activities as part of the examination process than standard exams. This paper reports on our first round of experiments with this new examination procedure.


Bhaumik, Anirban (*), Deepti Dixit (*), Roberto Galnares, Manolis Tzagarakis (*), Michalis Vaitis (*), Michael Bieber, Vincent Oria, Aparna Krishna (*), Qiang Lu (*), Firas Aljallad (*), Li Zhang (*), "Towards Hypermedia Support for Database Systems," Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2001, (Managing Information on the Web Minitrack). [pdf]
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/hicss01/hicss01-database.pdf

A review of our research efforts and future research agenda for supporting database applications with hypermedia support.


Yoo, Joonhee (*) and Michael Bieber, "Finding Linking Opportunities through Relationship-based Analysis," Hypertext 2000 Proceedings, San Antonio, ACM Press, June 2000.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/ht00-yoo-bieber.pdf

This paper presents a general introduction to the Relationship Navigation Analysis (RNA). It provides a detailed example, and explores different aspects of RNA from the HICSS paper below.


Yoo, Joonhee (*) and Michael Bieber, "Towards a Relationship Navigation Analysis," Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2000, (Internet Minitrack). [pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/hicss00/INWEB02.pdf

This paper presents a general introduction to the Relationship Navigation Analysis (RNA). Many conceptual modeling and system design methodologies provide tools to help system designers to model the real world. No guidelines exist, however, for determining the relationships within conceptual domains or implementations. RNA, based on a generic relationship taxonomy, provides a systematic way of identifying useful relationships in application domains. Developers can then implement each relationship as a link. Viewing an application domain from the relationship management point of view and modeling from a philosophy of maximum access provides a unique vantage point for application design. We present RNA and its generic relationship taxonomy, describing their use for system analysis.


Turoff, Murray, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Michael Bieber, Jerry Fjermestad and Ajaz Rana "Collaborative Discourse Structures in Computer Mediated Group Communications," Proceedings of the 32nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1999 [pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/hicss99.pdf

Combining multimedia, virtual reality, collaboration tools and semantic structuring through hypertext should make groups more effective. This paper describes a potential integrated collaborative hypermedia environment supporting rich discourse within groups.


Scherl, Richard, Michael Bieber and Fabio Vitali, "A Situation Calculus Model of Hypertext" Proceedings of the 31st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1998 (Logic Modeling Minitrack)
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/SBV98.pdf

We utilize the situation calculus to develop a logic model of hypertext systems. The situation calculus models the dynamic aspects of systems well.


Chiu, Chao-Min (*) and Michael Bieber, "A Generic Dynamic-Mapping Wrapper for Open Hypertext System Support of Analytical Applications," ACM Hypertext'97 Proceedings, ACM Press, Washington, D.C., April 1997, pages 218-219. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/ht97pdf

This short paper (strongly refereed) explains an architecture for supplementing information systems with hypertext using the terminology and models of the open hypermedia systems (OHS) research field. This research should encourage more OHS support for computational applications.


Vitali, Fabio, Chao-Min Chiu (*) and Michael Bieber, "Extending HTML in a Principled Way with Displets," Proceedings of the Sixth World Wide Web Conference, 1997.
[on-line] http://www.cs.unibo.it/~fabio/bio/papers/1997/WWW97/Displets/PAPER155.html

Displets provide authors and programmers with a way to freely extend the HTML language on a per-document basis in a principled manner. This would enable people to easily include special notations such as mathematics, music, charting, etc. Displets are Java classes that are activated while rendering an HTML document.


Ajaz Rana and Michael Bieber, "Towards a Collaborative Hypermedia Educational Framework" Proceedings of the 30th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1997, pages 610-619 (Volume 2, Collaborative Systems Minitrack)

We propose a Collaborative Hypermedia Educational Framework (CHEF). CHEF provides a theoretically-based philosophy for thinking about how best to serve distance learning students, instructors and content developers. It embodies three fundamental concepts: collaboration, hypertext and multimedia, which should underlie most facets of learning and instruction.


Wan, Jiangling (*) and Michael Bieber, "Mapping Relational Database Management Systems to Hypertext" Proceedings of the 30th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1997, pages 160-166, (Volume 6, Hypermedia Minitrack).

A logic-based approach to integrating hypertext and relational database management systems (RDBMS) without any changes to the RDBMS.


Wan, Jiangling (*) and Michael Bieber, "GHMI: A General Hypertext Data Model Supporting Integration of Hypertext and Information Systems" Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Wailea, Maui; January 1996), IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., pages 47-56 (Volume 2, Logic Modeling Minitrack).

A Dexter-based logic model employing composites and bridge laws to map the independent domains of hypertext and non-hypertext information systems.
- builds upon the technique described in "A Logic-based Approach to Integrating Hypertext and Information Systems"


Wan, Jiangling (*), Michael Bieber, Jason Wang and Peter A. Ng, "LHM: A Logic-based Hypertext Data Model for Integrating Hypertext and Information Systems," Proceedings of the 28th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1995, pages 350-359 (Volume 3, Logic Modeling Minitrack).

A logic model employing composites and bridge laws to map the independent domains of hypertext and document management.
- builds upon the model in "Document Management Through Hypertext: A Logic Modeling Approach"


Wan, Jiangling (*), Michael Bieber, Jason Wang and Peter A. Ng, "Document Management Through Hypertext: A Logic Modeling Approach," Proceedings of the 27th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1994, pages 558-568 (Volume 3, Logic Modeling Minitrack). [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/wbwn94.pdf

How logic modeling can map two independent information system domains, such as hypertext and document management, through using bridge laws.


Bhargava, Hemant K. (*), Michael P. Bieber (*) and Steven O. Kimbrough, "Oona, Max, and the WYWWYWI Principle: Generalized Hypertext and Model Management in a Symbolic Programming Environment," in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Information Systems, Minneapolis, 1988, pages 179-192. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/bbk88.pdf

How we integrated and implemented hypertext and model management concepts in two prototype DSSs, and why.


Lightly Refereed Publications

((*) graduate student author; (**) undergraduate author; to top of page)

Dhami, Jay (**) and Michael Bieber, "Meta-information for the World Wide Web," National Conference on Undergraduate Research, Rochester, April 8-10, 1999. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/ncur99.html

This research project provides a mechanism for displaying meta-information for objects on the World Wide Web and describes the importance of meta-information on the Web.


Turoff, Murray, Jerry Fjermestad, Ajaz Rana, Michael Bieber and Starr Roxanne Hiltz, "Collaborative Hypermedia in Virtual Reality Systems," Proceedings of the Third Americas Conference of the Association of Information Systems, Indianapolis, August 15-17, 1997.

Combining multimedia, virtual reality, collaboration tools and semantic structuring through hypertext should make groups more effective. This paper describes a potential integrated collaborative hypermedia environment supporting rich discourse within groups.


Coppola, Nancy, Ajaz Rana and Michael Bieber, "Collaborative Hypermedia Educational Framework (CHEF): Instantiation and Assessment of an Instructional Model," Proceedings of the Australian World Wide Web Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, July 5-9, 1997.

This extends our CHEF paper by applying the Collaborative Hypermedia Educational Framework to a distance learning course being designed at NJIT.


Bieber, Michael, Michael Bartolacci, Jerry Fjermestad, Hua Hua, Franz Kurfess, Qianhong Liu, Marvin Nakayama, Peter Ng, Richard Scherl, Richard Sweeney, Thomas Terry, Fabio Vitali, Jason Wang, Raymond Yeh, "Electronic Enterprise Engineering --- An Outline of an Architecture," Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems, Monterey, March 1997.

EEE puts forth a vision for organizations to fully embrace computer support. We propose a process-oriented infrastructure for Electronic Enterprise Engineering that will enable enterprises to (1) manage and evolve all technological and organizational processes effectively, (2) integrate and manage all enterprise information electronically; and (3) empower knowledge workers at all levels with broad decision support capabilities.


Tanik, Murat M., Raymond T. Yeh, Michael Bieber, Franz J. Kurfess, Peter A. Ng, Ajaz Rana, and Willi Rossak, "Issues and Architectures for Electronic Enterprise Engineering (EEE)," Proceedings of the Second World Conference on Integrated Design and Process Technology, Austin, Texas, December 1-4, 1996, Volume 2, pages 57-62.

This presents a vision of the new field of Electronic Enterprise Engineering (EEE). The EEE approach empowers an enterprise to make the best use of its informational assets for operating effectively in this new era of electronic commerce.


Bieber, Michael, "What Every Developer Should Know About Hypertext," Proceedings of the Americas Conference of the Association of Information Systems, Phoenix, August 1996.

A hypertext analysis should supplement a traditional systems analysis for an application. The supplemental hypertext analysis would examine the application domain in terms of its interrelationships and metainformation, to determine whether the developer missed anything. We propose six broad classes of relationships a hypertext analysis would highlight.


Bartolacci, Michael, Michael Bieber, Jerry Fjermestad, Hua Hua, Franz Kurfess, Qianhong Liu, Marvin Nakayama, Peter Ng, Richard Scherl, Richard Sweeney, Thomas Terry, Fabio Vitali, Jason Wang, Raymond Yeh, "Comprehensive Electronic Enterprise Support," Proceedings of the Americas Conference of the Association of Information Systems, Phoenix, August 1996.


Bieber, Michael, "Dynamically Incorporating Hypermedia Functionality into Information Systems," Proceedings of the Intelligent Hypermedia Workshop at CIKM'94, Gaithersburg, December 1994.

Integrating hypertext into applications which dynamically generate their content.


Thesis

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Bieber, Michael, Generalized Hypertext in a Knowledge-based DSS Shell Environment, Ph. D. Dissertation, Decision Sciences Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, 1990.

A thesis detailing the motivation for and development of a logic model of generalized hypertext-a dynamic view of hypertext supporting DSS applications at the system-level interface of a knowledge-based shell.


Encyclopedia Entries

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Bieber, Michael, Jia Shen, Dezhi Wu and Starr Roxanne Hiltz. "Participatory Learning Approach." In Encyclopedia of Distance Learning, Second Edition, ed. Patricia L. Rogers, Gary A. Berg, Judith V. Boettcher, Caroline Howard, Lorraine Justice and Karen D. Schenk, 1591-1596, 2009. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/PLA-DLEncyclopedia.pdf

A short article on the Participatory Learning Approach.


Bieber, Michael, "Hypertext," Concise Encyclopedia of Computer Science, Edwin Reilly (ed.), John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2004, 363-366.

A shorter definition of hypertext and hypermedia than the 2000 entry below.


Bieber, Michael, "Hypertext," Encyclopedia of Computer Science (4th Edition), Ralston, A., Edwin Reilly and David Hemmendinger (eds.), Nature Publishing Group, 2000, 799-805. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/cs-encyclopedia/csencyclopedia00.pdf

A detailed definition of hypertext and hypermedia, as well as an overview of the associated research fields.


Workshop Papers and Position Statements

((*) student author; to top of page)

Song, Min and Michael Bieber, "IntegraL: Lightweight Link-based Integration of Heterogeneous Digital Library Collections and Services in the Deep Web," The Semantic Web meets the Deep Web workshop, in conjunction with IEEE Joint Conference on E-Commerce. Technology and Enterprise Computing, E-Commerce and E-Services 2008. 20-26. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/song08-integral-ec-workshop.pdf


Bieber, Michael, Roberto Galnares (*) and Qiang Lu (*), Service Integration for Virtual Communities. Web Engineering Workshop, International World Wide Web 10 Conference, Hong Kong, May 2001. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/WWW10-workshop-services.doc


Bieber, Michael, Roberto Galnares (*) and Qiang Lu (*), "Web Engineering and Flexible Hypermedia," 2nd Workshop on Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia, Hypertext '98 Conference, Pittsburgh, 1998. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/ht98-workshop-flexible.html


Bieber, Michael and Roberto Galnares (*), "Automated Hypermedia Support for the Virtual Documents Generated by Analytical Applications," Workshop on Virtual Documents, Hypertext Functionality and the Web, WWW8 Conference, Gold Coast, Australia, 1998. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/www8-vdoc-position.html


Also:

Bieber, Michael, "Web Engineering" in K. Kuutti (ed). Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Incorporating Hypertext Functionality Into Software Systems (HTF VI), International Conference on Information Systems, Helsinki, December 1998.

Bieber, M., R. Galnares (*) and Q. Lu (*), "Web Engineering and Flexible Hypermedia" in P. Brusilovsky (ed). Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Adaptive Hypertext and Hypermedia, Hypertext'98 Conference, Pittsburgh, June 1998.

Bieber, Michael, "Web Engineering" in G. Rossi and H. Ziv (eds). Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Incorporating Hypertext Functionality Into Software Systems (HTF V), International Conference on Software Engineering, Kyoto, April 1998.

Bieber, Michael, "Web Engineering," in C. Watters and F. Vitali (eds). Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Incorporating Hypertext Functionality Into Software Systems (HTF IV), World Wide Web7 Conference, Brisbane, April 1998.

Bieber, Michael, "Why Hypertext?," in Ashman et al. (eds). Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Incorporating Hypertext Functionality Into Software Systems (HTF III), Hypertext '97 Conference, Southampton UK, April 1997.

Bieber, Michael, "What Every Systems Developer Should Know about Hypertext," in Ashman et al. (eds). Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Incorporating Hypertext Functionality Into Software Systems (HTF II), Hypertext '96 Conference, Bethesda, March 1996.

Bieber, Michael and Charles Kacmar, "Hypertext Support for Computational Applications," in Ashman et al. (eds). Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Incorporating Hypertext Functionality Into Software Systems (HTF I), European Conference on Hypermedia Technologies (ECHT'94), Edinburgh, September 1994.

Bieber, Michael, "Dynamically Incorporating Hypermedia Functionality into Information Systems," Proceedings of the Conference on Information Knowledge Management Workshop on Intelligent Hypertext (Gaithersburg, Maryland; December 1994).

Wan, Jiangling (*), Michael Bieber, Jason Wang and Peter Ng "GHMI: A General Hypertext Data Model for Integrating Hypertext and Information Systems," Proceedings of the Conference on Information Knowledge Management Workshop on Intelligent Hypertext (Gaithersburg, Maryland; December 1994).


Tutorials

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I also presented a tutorial on Relationship Analysis at:


Under Revision

((*) student author; to top of page)

none currently 


Under Submission

((*) student author; to top of page)

none currently


 

In Preparation (selected works in progress)...

((*) student author; to top of page)


Joseph Catanio and Michael Bieber, "Relationship Analysis: A Technique to Improve the Systems Analysis Process," in preparation
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/Catanio_Bieber_JAIS_Submission.doc (latest version)

This paper presents a new, theory-grounded model underlying Relationship Analysis as well as our experimental results. Relationship Analysis offers a systematic, domain-independent analysis technique specifically to determine a domain's relationship structure. The Relationship Analysis Model is the first theory-based taxonomy to classify relationships. A rigorous evaluation was conducted, including a formal experiment comparing novice and experienced analysts with and without Relationship Analysis. It was shown that the Relationship Analysis Process based on the model does provide a fuller and richer systems analysis, resulting in improved quality of class diagrams. It also was shown that Relationship Analysis enables analysts of varying experience levels to achieve class diagrams of similar quality. Relationship Analysis significantly enhances the systems analyst's effectiveness, especially in the area of relationship discovery and documentation, resulting in improved analysis and design artifacts.


Nnadi, Nkechi (*) and Michael Bieber, "Towards Lightweight Digital Library Integration," in preparation
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/nnadi-doceng04.pdf (latest version)

The Digital Library Integration Infrastructure (DLII) provides a systematic lightweight approach for integrating digital library collections and services. Digital library systems generally require minimal or no changes to their code. Users see a totally integrated environment. They use their digital library system just as before. They also see extra link anchors. Selecting one generates a list of links to relevant metainformation (structural, content-based and knowledge-sharing relationships, and metadata). DLII generates the vast majority of supplemental link anchors and metainformation links automatically through the use of relationship rules. This paper presents the concept of metainformation, describes the DLII infrastructure and architecture, and explains how systems can integrate into the infrastructure. This research's primary contribution is providing a relatively straightforward, sustainable infrastructure for integrating digital library collections and services.


Bieber, Michael "Supplementing Applications with Hypertext," in preparation
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/supp/supp.html (latest version - in semi-hibernation)

This research provides system developers with the means to integrate hypertext functionality into their applications with minimal or no alteration. This paper describes a hypertext engine which executes concurrently with, but independent of, information system applications, automatically providing their users with access to the application's interrelationships and supplemental navigation facilities.
- expands upon "What Every Developer Should Know About Hypertext,"


Technical Reports

((*) student author; to top of page)

Spasovic, Lazar, Michael Bieber and Athanassios Bladikas, "Multi-Modal Freight Transportation: Regional Data Development and Analysis," New Jersey Institute of Technology, Technical Report, 2000.

Describes various decision support tools and their hypermedia enhancements, applied to the area of freight transportation.
[pdf] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/freight00.pdf


Marcus Healey and Michael Bieber, "The Virtual Urban Environment: Environmental Justice Metrics for Hazardous Waste Nonpoint Sources," New Jersey Institute of Technology, Technical Report, 1999

How does one develop Environmental Justice metrics that are philosophically enlightened, yet statistically sensible, that answer the needs of multiple stakeholders? How does one counter "informational poverty," to engage and educate new stakeholders? We need to extend the power of the Right-To-Know laws as an agent of change by shifting the focus on point releases of toxic chemicals to the nonpoint (transportation using trucks and trains, etc.) releases associated with hazardous waste management. Doing so will further link the environmental performance of firms to the market and incorporate non-point sources into socioeconomic evaluations.


Van De Walle, Bartel and Michael Bieber, "Finding the Underlying Links within Analytical Applications," New Jersey Institute of Technology, Technical Report, 1999.
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/vb99-www/VB99-www.html

When migrating applications to the World Wide Web, developers often do not take the opportunity to reengineer the applications for the Web environment.  Many applications thus have a paucity of links.  The Relationship-Navigation Analysis methodology helps designers better understand, as well as add a rich layer of meaningful hypermedia functionality to complex analytical applications. We illustrate with a multi-criteria decision model application, implemented in a decision analysis software toolkit.


Turoff, Murray, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Michael Bieber, Ajaz Rana and Jerry Fjermestad, "Collaborative Discourse Structures in Computer Mediated Group Communications" [on-line] http://eies.njit.edu/~turoff/Papers/CDSCMC/CDSCMC.htm

Combining multimedia, virtual reality, collaboration tools and semantic structuring through hypertext should make groups more effective. This paper describes a potential integrated collaborative hypermedia environment supporting rich discourse within groups.
- expands upon AIS98 and HICSS99 publications


Bieber, Michael, "Relationship-Navigation Analysis for Developing World Wide Web Applications" [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/rna-v11.html

Analyzing an application specifically in terms of its intra- and inter-relationships can lead application analysts to better understand its complexity and richness, as well as better provide the kind of access and metaknowledge users desire. This paper describes the Relationship-Navigation Analysis Approach for the initial analysis phase of Web systems design.


Praveen Ramanathan (*), Mohan Pattabiraman (*), Qiang Lu (*) and Michael Bieber "Applying Hypermedia to World Wide Web Applications"
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~mohan/www7-paper.html

The DHE hypermedia engine dynamically provides hypermedia linking for World Wide Web applications that dynamically generate their content. We demonstrate using a legacy application engineered for the World Wide Web. We perform a Relationship-Navigation Analysis to determine where to place the links. We describe DHE's architecture. We describe the mapping rules the system employs.


Bieber, Michael, Michael Bartolacci, Jerry Fjermestad, Franz Kurfess, Qianhong Liu, Marvin Nakayama, Ajaz Rana, Richard Scherl, Murat Tanik, Fabio Vitali, Jason Wang, Raymond Yeh, Peter Ng, Richard Sweeney, "A Preliminary Architecture for Electronic Enterprise Engineering," Technical Report, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Computer and Information Science, December 1996.

This puts forth a vision for organizations to fully embrace computer support. We propose a process-oriented infrastructure for Electronic Enterprise Engineering (EEE) that will enable enterprises to (1) manage and evolve all technological and organizational processes effectively, (2) integrate and manage all enterprise information electronically; and (3) empower knowledge workers at all levels with broad decision support capabilities.


Bieber, Michael, "Developing a Freight Data Executive MIS for New Jersey Using Hypertext," Technical Report CIS96-9, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Computer and Information Science, April 1996. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/freight96.doc

This report shows how hypertext greatly can enhance a transportation-oriented Executive Management Information System (MIS). We propose a hypertext-based architecture to support an Executive MIS, being considered by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.


Bieber, Michael, "Flexibility in Hypermedia: A Perspective on Models, Standards and Systems," Technical Report, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Computer and Information Science, August 1992.

To provide maximum flexibility, hypermedia models must support interoperability with information systems and be able to represent all of their information and metainformation as "first class" hypermedia objects.


Bieber, Michael, "Template-Driven Hypertext: A Methodology for Integrating a Hypertext Interface into Information Systems," Technical Report, Boston College, 1991.

A new model of generalized hypertext for generating reports with multiple formats for different users and tasks.


Bieber, Michael and Tomás Isakowitz, "Bridge Laws in Hypertext: A Logic Modeling Approach," Technical Report, Boston College, 1991.

A detailed discussion of bridge laws-our technique for dynamically mapping hypertext to applications-applied to two domains: database and model management.


Bieber, Michael and Tomás Isakowitz, "Valuation Links: Extending the Computational Power of Hypertext," Technical Report, Boston College, 1991.

Introducing hypertext valuation links, which update displayed information (such as the price of a stock) in real time.


Poetry

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"The Valley" by Michael Bieber
[on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/the-valley

My first (and mercifully, perhaps last) attempt at using hypermedia structure (links and navigation flow) to enhance a poem's story. It is an example of a poor use of hypermedia structure (see linked critique).


Special Issues Edited

((*) student author; to top of page)

Note: Each special issue edited includes an introduction summarizing the state of the field for the special issue's topic.


"Hypertext Functionality," Helen Ashman, Harri Oinas-Kukkonen and Michael Bieber, Journal of Digital Information 1(4), February 1999. [on-line] http://jodi.tamu.edu/?vol=1&iss=4

Hypertext functionality (HTF) can provide richer and more effective relationship and navigational support for applications. The Web provides a platform for widespread HTF support, but few Web applications (and even fewer off the Web) currently take more than modest advantage of hypertext. New applications on the Web, for example, rarely incorporate links beyond a home page and an index. Users of the future will come to expect HTF support, and developers will need the tools and experience to deliver. This issue covers design and integration of HTF into applications, and using HTF to improve organizational effectiveness.

[Introduction]


"Web Information Systems," Tomás Isakowitz, Michael Bieber and Fabio Vitali (editors), Communications of the ACM, 38(8), July 1998.

Web Information Systems support an organization's work, and usually are tightly integrated with other non-Web-based information systems such as a databases and transaction processing systems. WISs are also different from traditional information systems. They require new approaches to design and development, have the potential of reaching a much wider audience, and are usually a result of grass-roots efforts. These differences introduce managerial and technical challenges. A major goal of this special section is to raise the awareness among developers, managers and users that WISs indeed are a different kind of information system, thus requiring people to think them much differently than for traditional systems. The special section's 3 articles and 11 sidebars cover a broad range of aspects concerning WISs.

[Introduction]


"Hypermedia in Information Systems and Organizations," Michael Bieber and Tomás Isakowitz (editors), Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce 6(3), 1996.

The papers in this special issue concern hypermedia navigation, object-oriented hypermedia design, hypermedia and knowledge-based applications, and the role for protocol analysis in evaluating hypermedia effectiveness.


"Designing Hypermedia Applications," Michael Bieber and Tomás Isakowitz (editors), Communications of the ACM, 38(8), August 1995.

The papers and sidebars in this special issue concern systematic hypermedia design methodologies, guidelines and evaluation techniques.

[Introduction]


"Navigation in Information-Intensive Environments," Tomás Isakowitz and Michael Bieber (editors), Journal of Management Information Systems, 11(4), Spring 1995.

The papers in this special section concern accessing information in various domains, including electronic shopping, executive support systems and digital library environments.


Conference Tracks Edited

((*) student author; to top of page)

"Community Informatics", Roger Harris, Michael Bieber, Michael Gurstein, Wal Taylor and Doug Vogel (editors), Minitrack within the Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 2002. [on-line] http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pub/HICSS02-introduction.pdf

Papers in this minitrack (subtrack) concern all aspects of community informatics (local community support) and also its application to virtual communities.


"Web Information Systems", Marios Koufaris (*), Tomás Isakowitz and Michael Bieber(editors), Minitrack within the Proceedings of the 32nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1999.

"Web Information Systems", Michael Bieber and Tomás Isakowitz (editors), Minitrack within the Proceedings of the 31st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1998.

Papers in this minitrack (subtrack) concern all aspects of information system applications (analysis, design, development, use, impact, etc.) on the World Wide Web.


"Coping with Information Overload", Michael Bieber, Mark Ginsburg (*) and Tomás Isakowitz (editors), Minitrack within the Proceedings of the 31st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1998.

Papers in this minitrack (subtrack) concern how people cope with large amounts of information and how computer support can improve aspects of this problem.


"Hypermedia in Information Systems and Organizations", Michael Bieber and Tomás Isakowitz (editors), Minitrack within the Proceedings of the 26th - 30th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Press, Washington, D.C., January 1993-97 (Volume 3: 1993-1995, Volume 2: 1996, Volume 6, 1997)

Papers in this minitrack (subtrack) concern the role for hypermedia functionality in organizations and when integrated into information systems.


Software Systems

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"Designing Hypermedia Applications," Michael Bieber and Tomás Isakowitz (editors), Communications of the ACM, 38(8), August 1995. {no longer accessible}

Electronic Version of the CACM August 1995 special issue on the World-Wide Web. The authors and editors have crafted hundreds of links, many with semantic labels explaining the interrelationships they capture. Readers have the options of varying the way semantic link information appears.


last updated: March 20, 2014
This page:
http://web.njit.edu/~bieber/pubs.html